100 Hour Inspection Legal Interpretation

Written on July 20, 2019 at 6:18 pm, by hkraemer

Office of the Chief Counsel

800 Independence Ave., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20591

Re: Request for Legal Interpretation of 14 CFR § 91.409(b)

Dear Mr. Greenwood:

On October 1, 2014, my office responded to your March 22 request for a legal interpretation of 14 C.F .R. § 91.409(b ), the FAA’s regulation requiring annual or 1 00-hour inspections for aircraft operated for hire, including flight instruction. Your questions concerned operations by Fly By
Knight, Inc. (Fly By Knight), a flight school certificated under 14 C.F.R. parts 61 and 141, that offers both flight instruction and aircraft rental to its customers. We have re-evaluated our response to your final question, which was an expansion of your Scenario 6. Please note that
our responses to Scenarios 1 through 5 remain unchanged. This letter corrects the letter of interpretation dated October 1, 2014, and strikes that letter from the Federal Aviation Administration database.

Section 91.409(b) of subpart E, part 91, states that “no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no person may give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection.” For purposes of§ 91.409(b), aircraft used for flight training under part 141 are not treated any differently than aircraft used for flight instruction under part 61. In fact,§ 141.39(a)(3) provides that each aircraft used by a part 141 flight school for flight training and solo flights “must be maintained and inspected in
accordance with the requirements for aircraft operated for hire under part 91, subpart E.”

The 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement of§ 91.409(b) depends on how the aircraft is operated. See Legal Interpretation, Letter to Craig Brown from Donald Byrne, Assistant Chief Counsel for Regulations (February 24, 2000). Therefore, when Fly By Knight uses an aircraft
for both flight instruction and rental, the 1 00-hour maintenance inspection requirement depends on how the aircraft is operated during the flight in question. For instance, if Fly By Knight is going to operate the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire, then the aircraft must have had
an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours oftime in service. If Fly By Knight is going to rent the aircraft to a customer, however, and does not provide the pilot, that aircraft need not have an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection within the
preceding 1 00 hours of time in service. See Legal Interpretation, Letter to Berry Rackers from Joseph Brennan, Associate Regional Counsel (May 3, 1984).

You listed six scenarios that could occur during your operations, and you requested counsel’s opinion as to whether these scenarios represent a violation of§ 91.409(b ).

Scenario 1: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 95 hours of time in service since the last annual inspection. A rental customer reserves the aircraft for a weekend trip and anticipates flying an additional 10 hours. We assume
Fly By Knight does not provide a pilot. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 1 does not violate § 91.409(b ). As explained above, the 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement depends on how the aircraft is operated. If the rental customer rents the aircraft and Fly By Knight does not provide the pilot, then the aircraft is not being operated to carry a person (other than a crewmember) for hire, or to provide flight
instruction for hire. Thus, the 1 00-hour maintenance inspection requirement does not apply, and the rental customer may pilot the aircraft the additional 10 hours. Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection, however, prior to operating the aircraft to provide
flight instruction for hire.

Scenario 2: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a local training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot, and the flight lasts 1.5 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 100-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 2 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 100-hour limitation during a local training flight. The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. As a result, the aircraft must have
received an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. The next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the local training flight is expected to take 1.5 hours. Section 91.409(b) states that “the 100-hour
limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.” This 10-hour grace period applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be performed. In this scenario,
the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 100-hour limitation during a local training flight. The 1 0-hour grace period does not apply to local training flights. As a result, the operator violates § 91.409(b) when the 0.2 hours expire.

Scenario 3: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a solo cross country training flight with a student pilot. The flight takes 2.5 hours and includes a
full stop landing at the destination airpoti. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 3 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight student intends to overfly the 100-hour limitation during his solo cross country flight, and he is not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. Section 91.409(b) applies
to aircraft operated to provide flight instruction for hire. Thus, § 91.409(b) applies to aircraft used for flight instruction under part 61, which includes solo training flights. Furthermore, § 141.39 states that each aircraft used by a part 141 flight school for flight training and solo flights “must be maintained and inspected in accordance with the requirements for aircraft
operated for hire under part 91, subpart E.” Therefore, if a flight student conducts a solo cross country training flight, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service.

In this scenario, the next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the solo cross country training flight is expected to take 2.5 hours. The 10-hour grace period in § 91.409(b) applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be performed. The student pilot intends to overfly the 100-hour limitation during his solo cross country flight, and he is not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. As a result, the operator violates § 91.409(b ).

Scenario 4: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a cross country training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot. The 1st leg to
the destination airpmi takes 1.5 hours. The return flight also takes 1.5 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 100-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 4 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 1 00-hour limitation during their cross country flight, and they are not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.
The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. Therefore, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of
time in service. The next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the dual cross country flight is expected to take 3 hours. As stated above, the 10-hour grace period in § 91.409(b) applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a
place where the inspection can be performed. In this scenario, the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 1 00-hour limitation during their cross country training flight, and the aircraft is not being flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. As
in the previous scenario, the operator violates§ 91.409(b).

Scenario 5: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 97 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a cross country training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot. The 1st leg to
the destination airport is expected to take 1.5 hours. The return flight is also expected to take 1.5 hours. Due to ATC vectoring/unexpected winds, the flight instead takes 3.1 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 5 does not violate§ 91.409(b). The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. As a result, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. The aircraft had its last inspection within the preceding 97 hours of time in service and the planned flight is expected to take 3 hours. The aircraft remains in compliance with § 91.409(b) even though the flight takes 3.1 hours due to unexpected circumstances. The flight instructor and the student pilot did not intentionally overfly the 1 00-hour limitation, and § 91.409(b) provides that the 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.

Scenario 6: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 100 hours of time in service since the last inspection. Fly By Knight cannot perform an inspection within the next 3 days. The aircraft is marked for rental use only; no flight instruction is performed. Rental customers accumulate 12 hours of flight time over the 3 day period. After this, the aircraft receives an annual inspection.

The fact pattern in scenario 6 does not violate§ 91.409(b). Fly By Knight cannot operate the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire because the aircraft has not received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. Fly By Knight may rent the aircraft to customers, however, as long as Fly By Knight is not providing the pilot and as long as the rental customer is not operating the aircraft for hire. Rental customers may continue to accumulate flight time in this scenario because the 1OO-hour  maintenanceinspection requirement does not apply to aircraft being operated for rental purposes. However,
Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection on the aircraft prior to operating it to provide flight instruction for hire.

You also asked if an annual inspection “reset the clock” for a 100-hour inspection. You provided the following example:  An aircraft received an annual inspection and then flew 105 hours, if a 100-hr inspection was performed then the next inspection due would be in a further 95
hours however, if instead an annual inspection was performed, then the next required inspection would be in a further 100 hours, i.e., gaining 5 hours over performing a 100-hr inspection.” Your scenario is only partially correct.

Section 91.409(b) states that “the 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.” However, “the excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the
next 100 hours of time in service.”

You may perform an annual inspection rather than a 100-hour maintenance inspection when the aircraft reaches the 100-hour limitation under § 91.409(b ). However, if you perform an annual inspection on an aircraft that has exceeded the 100-hour limitation, you are still required to subtract the excess time from the next 100 hours of time in service. In your example, the aircraft received an annual inspection and then flew 105 hours. This aircraft would be overdue for an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection, assuming it is being operated for hire or operated to
provide flight instruction for hire. For purposes of this hypothetical, we will assume you exceeded the 1 00-hour limitation by 5 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection could be done. You must subtract the 5 excess hours from the next 100 hours of time in service. Therefore, the next annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection would be due in 95 hours,
regardless of whether an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection was last performed-the fact that you deemed the inspection in the second part of your hypothetical an annual rather than a 100-hour inspection makes no difference.

Finally, you asked how to bring the aircraft described in scenario 6 back into compliance when considering the 10-hour limitation detailed in§ 91.409(b). As explained above, the fact pattern described in scenario 6 does not violate § 91.409(b). The rental customer may overfly the 100-
hour limitation because the 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement does not apply to rental aircraft, provided that Fly By Knight does not provide the pilot to the rental customer and provided that the rental customer does not operate the aircraft for hire. Furthermore, the rental
customer may accumulate flight time in excess of 110 hours because the 1 0-hour grace period applies only when the aircraft is being operated for hire or operated to provide flight instruction for hire, and only when it is being operated en route to reach a place where the inspection can be
done. If the aircraft accumulates more than 110 hours of time in service while operating for hire or for flight instruction (only 10 of which are permissible to reach the place of inspection) the operator would be in violation of § 91.409(b ). The only way to bring the aircraft in your
scenario 6 back into compliance for purposes of providing flight instruction is to perform the 1 00-hour or annual inspection before operating it for those purposes. Therefore, the operation in scenario 6 does not violate § 91.409(b) when a rental customer accumulates flight time in excess
of 110 hours. However, Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection prior to using the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire.

We appreciate your patience and trust that the above responds to your concerns. If you need further assistance, please contact my staff at (202) 267-3073. This response was prepared by Katie Patrick and Edmund Averman, Attorneys in the Regulations Division of the Office of
the Chief Counsel, and coordinated with the Aircraft Maintenance Division of the Flight Standards Service.

Sincerely,
Lorelei Peter
Acting Assistant Chief Counsel for Regulations, AGC-200

The 5K Orchard Run

Written on July 16, 2019 at 11:21 am, by hkraemer

The 8th annual 5k trail race/walk will be held at

Butler’s Orchard

(22222 Davis Mill Road, Germantown, MD 20876) on

Saturday, November 23 at 10:30am

(followed by a FREE family fun run).

The 5k Orchard Run supports passionate dreamers from the UpCounty area who imagine the world to be a place of love, justice, compassion, and provision.

This year, we have chosen four local groups to make their corner of the world, locally or globally, as it should be:

Jobs Partnership – Teaching inmates at the Montgomery County Correctional Facility resume, interview, and jobs skills.

Little Free Pantry – An anonymous 24/7 emergency food pantry with locations in Damascus and Clarksburg.

PURE Youth – A local chapter of middle school students raising money to support the education of peers in India.

Campus Life – A middle and high school club dedicated to helping young people build positive relationships.

Get Involved!

Become A Sponsor

Is your business interested in becoming a sponsor? Your monetary donations, gifts in kind, or presence at the race can make this the best race yet. Contact Nicole Bungato at 301-787-6320 / nicolebungato@gmail.com for more information.

Register to Race

Go to 5korchardrun.com to register to race. Select which group you would like to race for and all profits from your registration fee will go towards their group.

METAR Report Decoded

Written on July 10, 2019 at 5:19 pm, by hkraemer

METAR – The type of report, METAR or SPECI precedes the body of all reports. 

KOKC – Station Identifier

011955Z – The date and time is coded in all reports as follows: the day of the month is the first two digits (01) followed by the hour (19), and the minutes (55). The coded time of observations is the actual time of the report or when the criteria for a SPECI is met or noted. If the report is a correction to a previously disseminated report, the time of the corrected report is the same time used in the report being corrected. The date and time group always ends with a Z indicating Zulu time (or UTC). For example, METAR KOKC 011955Z would be disseminated as the 2000 hour scheduled report for station KOKC taken on the 1st of the month at 1955 UTC. 

AUTO – The report modifier, AUTO, identifies the METAR/SPECI as a fully automated report with no human intervention or oversight. In the event of a corrected METAR or SPECI, the report modifier, COR, is substituted for AUTO. 

22015G25KT – Wind is the horizontal motion of air past a given point. It is measured in terms of velocity, which is a vector that includes direction and speed. It indicates the direction the wind is coming FROM.

In the wind group, the wind direction is coded as the first three digits (220) and is determined by averaging the recorded wind direction over a 2-minute period. It is coded in tens of degrees relative to true north using three figures. Directions less than 100 degrees are preceded with a
0. For example, a wind direction of 900 is coded as 090.


Immediately following the wind direction is the wind speed coded in two or three digits (15). Wind speed is determined by averaging the speed over a 2-minute period and is coded in whole knots using the units, tens digits and, when required, the hundreds digit. When wind speeds are less than 10 knots, a leading zero is used to maintain at least a two digit wind code. For
example, a wind speed of 8 knots will be coded 08KT. The wind group is always coded with a KT to indicate wind speeds are reported in knots. Other countries may use kilometers per hour (KPH) or meters per second (MPS) instead of knots.

Examples:
05008KT Wind 50 degrees at 8 knots
15014KT Wind 150 degrees at 14 knots
340112KT Wind 340 degrees at 112 knots 

Wind Gust. Wind speed data for the most recent 10 minutes is examined to evaluate the occurrence of gusts. Gusts are defined as rapid fluctuations in wind speed with a variation of 10 knots or more between peaks and lulls. The coded speed of the gust is the maximum instantaneous wind
speed. Wind gusts are coded in two or three digits immediately following the wind speed. Wind gusts are coded in whole knots using the units, tens, and, if required, the hundreds digit. For example, a wind out of the west at 20 knots with gusts to 35 knots would be coded 27020G35KT.

Variable Wind Direction (speed 6 knots or less). Wind direction may be considered variable when, during the previous 2-minute evaluation
period, the wind speed was 6 knots or less. In this case, the wind may be coded as VRB in place of the 3-digit wind direction. For example, if the wind speed was recorded as 3 knots, it would be coded VRB03KT.

180V250 – Variable Wind Direction (speed greater than 6 knots).  Wind direction may also be considered variable when, during the 2-minute evaluation period, it
varies by 60 degrees or more and the speed is greater than 6 knots. In this case a variable wind direction group immediately follows the wind group. The directional variability is coded in a clockwise direction and consists of the extremes of the wind directions separated by a V. For example, if the wind is variable from 180º to 240º at 10 knots, it would be coded 21010KT
180V240. 

Calm Wind. When no motion of air is detected, the wind is reported as calm. A calm wind is coded as 00000KT.

 

 3/4SM – Visibility is a measure of the opacity of the atmosphere.


Prevailing visibility is the reported visibility considered representative of recorded visibility conditions at the station during the time of observation. It is the greatest distance that can be seen throughout at least half of the horizon circle, not necessarily continuous.


Surface visibility is the prevailing visibility from the surface at manual stations or the visibility derived from sensors at automated stations.


The visibility group is coded as the surface visibility in statute miles. A space is coded between whole numbers and fractions of reportable visibility values. The visibility group ends with SM to indicate that the visibility is in statute miles. For example, a visibility of one and a half statute miles is coded 1 1/2SM. Other countries may use meters (no code).


Automated stations use an M to indicate “less than.” For example, M1/4SM means a visibility of less than one-quarter statute mile.

R17L/2600FT – Runway Visual Range (RVR) Group.

The runway visual range (RVR) is an instrument-derived value representing the horizontal distance a pilot may see down the runway.

RVR is reported whenever the station has RVR equipment and prevailing visibility is 1 statute mile or less and/or the RVR for the designated instrument runway is 6,000 feet or less. Otherwise the RVR group is omitted.

Runway visual range is coded in the following format: the initial R is code for runway and is followed by the runway number. When more than one runway is defined with the same runway number a directional letter is coded on the end of the runway number. Next is a solidus /;
followed by the visual range in feet and then FT completes the RVR report. For example, an RVR value for Runway 01L of 800 feet would be coded R01L/0800FT. Other countries may use meters.

RVR values are coded in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet. Manual RVR is not reported below 600 feet. At automated stations, RVR may be reported for up to four designated runways. 

When the RVR varies by more than one reportable value, the lowest and highest values will be shown with V between them indicating variable conditions. For example, the 10-minute RVR for runway 01L varying between 600 and 1,000 feet would be coded R01L/0600V1000FT.

If RVR is less than its lowest reportable value, the visual range group is preceded by M. For example, an RVR for runway 01L of less than 600 feet is coded R01L/M0600FT.

If RVR is greater than its highest reportable value, the visual range group is preceded by a P. For example, an RVR for runway 27 of greater than 6,000 feet will be coded R27/P6000FT.

+TSRA BR – Present Weather Group.  Heavy. TS = Thunderstorms.  RA = Rain. BR = MIST.


OVC010CB – Sky Condition Group.  Overcast at 1,000 feet with cumulonimbus. 

18/16 – Temperature/Dew Point Group

A2992 –  Altimeter

RMK AO2 TSB25 TS OHD MOV E SLP132 – Remarks (RMK). 

A02 – Type of Automated Station AO1 or AO2 are coded in all METAR/SPECI from automated stations. Automated stations without a precipitation discriminator are identified as AO1; automated stations with a
precipitation discriminator are identified as AO2. 

SLP132 – Sea-Level Pressure. At designated stations, the sea-level pressure is coded in the following format: the identifier SLP immediately followed by the sea level pressure in hectopascals. The hundreds and thousands units are not coded and must be inferred. For example, a sea-level pressure of
998.2 hectopascals is coded as SLP982. A sea-level pressure of 1013.2 hectopascals would be coded as SLP132. For a METAR, if sea-level pressure is not available, it is coded as SLPNO. 

METAR Report

Written on July 10, 2019 at 4:44 pm, by hkraemer

METAR KOKC 011955Z AUTO 22015G25KT 180V250 3/4SM R17L/2600FT +TSRA BR
OVC010CB 18/16 A2992 RMK AO2 TSB25 TS OHD MOV E SLP132

Instrument Rating Endorsements

Written on July 7, 2019 at 4:20 pm, by hkraemer

Prerequisites for practical test: Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part 61, § 61.39(a)(6)(i) and (ii).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged training time within 2 calendar-months preceding the month of application in preparation for the practical test and [he or she] is prepared for the required practical test for the issuance of [applicable] certificate.

Review of deficiencies identified on airman knowledge test: § 61.39(a)(6)(iii), as required.
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was deficient on the [applicable] airman knowledge test.

Aeronautical knowledge test: §§ 61.35(a)(1) and 61.65(a) and (b).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.65(b). I have determined that [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift] knowledge test.

Flight proficiency/practical test: § 61.65(a)(6).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.65(c) and (d). I have determined [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift] practical test.

Prerequisites for instrument practical tests: § 61.39(a).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged the required flight time/training of § 61.39(a) in preparation for the practical test within 2 calendar-months preceding the date of the test and has satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was shown to be deficient by the FAA Airman Knowledge Test Report. I have
determined [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered lift] practical test.

Kraemer Aviation / Flymall.org June 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter

Written on June 27, 2019 at 7:43 pm, by hkraemer

Your one stop shop for all of your wheels & wings needs; sales, appraisals, insurance, parts, tech tips, events, and more at Flymall.org. And as of July 2019, Harry is up and running as a Designated Pilot Examiner. Visit his Practical Test page for information on his checkrides.

Click here for our June 2019 Newsletter.

In an effort to better serve the needs of our aviators selling airport homes or airport property, Harry has teamed up with Sarah McNelis of Long & Foster Real Estate.  This partnership will allow us to better serve our clients from coast to coast when it comes to selling their unique airport homes.  Visit the Real Estate section of the Flymall for more information.

History Trivia:  Have any of our readers heard of John Henry Knight? In 1895 Knight built one of Britain’s first petrol-powered motor vehicles, a three-wheeled, two-seater  with a top speed of only 8 mph.  It was “The first petroleum carriage for two people made in England”  The Benz Motorwagen was built in 1885.  In the Three Wheel Association collection we have a Rudge Coventry Rotary Tandem made in 1886.  John Knight’s three wheeler is pictured below.

Achievements & Special Recognition:  This year is the 10th year for the Laytonsville Cruise In.  Click here for Harry’s Classic Car Cruise In page for information on local cruise in events.  Pictured below is a picture that was taken at the very first Laytonsville Cruise In back in 2010.

A career goal that Harry set back in 1983 has finally happen.  Harry Kraemer is now a Designated Pilot Examiner.  It only took 19 years of being in the examiner pool for him to be selected.

To celebrate Harry becoming a DPE, several of his friends surprise him with his favorite cake at Julliano’s Brick Oven Pizza.  Complete with a DPE flag and two model airplane on it!

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  The Horten HX-2 Flying Wing will be at AirVenture this year.  This is a new design flying wing inspired by the Horten Brothers flying wings of the 1930s and 1940s.  Click here for more information.  Pictured here is one of the Horton Flying Wings from the 1930s/1940s.

Harry was lucky enough to be able to sit in a Fokker DR1 replica at the Frederick Municipal Airport.  It made for some cool photo shots.

Car/Motorcycle Show News:  Harry, Pat, and Jett attended British Car Day 2019.  The Lomax was on display and won a first place award in it’s class. There was a McLaren in the same class and he won a second place award. The McLaren owner wasn’t too happy that at $10,000 kit car beat his McLaren.

Click here for more pictures from British Car Day 2019.

To celebrate the Laytonsville Cruise In being 10 years old, Harry has arranged for sponsors for the third Friday of each month.  Cars, motorcycles, and bicycles and earn awards by a panel of judges, spectator votes, or by participant vote. Harry had two vehicles at the June 2019 award night and both came home with an award.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  Need an appraisal on your Barn Find or Hangar Find?  We can help!  Visit our appraisal page for information on our appraisals.

Check out our Market Watch section of the Flymall for prices on collector cars, motorcycles, aircraft and more.

Visit the Tech Tip section of the Flymall for assistance in restoring your barn find or hangar find.

CFI / DPE Notes:  Harry is now a Designated Pilot Examiner.  Visit Harry’s Practical Test page for information on checkrides.

Weather in the news:  Here is a picture of what we think is a mesocyclone. This was taken at KGAI earlier this month.  Very cool storm cloud to see (while on the ground).

Three Wheel Association (TWA):   Here is a cool concept by Peugeot, an amphibious scooter.  

For the latest information and news, visit the TWA page on the Flymall.  You can also stop by the Laytonsville Cruise In on Friday nights to see some of the TWA museum collection.

Later this year we hope to be adding several rare three wheelers to the TWA collection.  Stay tuned for more details.

Prototypes:  Is it an engine or a motor???  This month in “Prototypes” we’re asking the question, Is it an engine or motor?  Click here for an earlier post that Harry did on this topic.

Animals in the headlines:  Man’s best friend makes our newsletter this month.

Jett, a real trooper, car shows, airshows, airports, etc.  She is always happy to tag along.

Visit Flymall.org to subscribe to this newsletter.

We close this newsletter with these words from Paul McCartney:  In the end the love you take is equal to the love you make.

July 2019 Awards

Written on June 25, 2019 at 12:27 pm, by hkraemer

The sponsor for these awards will be “Frederick Flight Center / Advanced Helicopter Concepts”.

Award Categories (For each of these there will be a first place, second place, and a third place award)
Antique
Classic
Custom
Muscle & Hot Rod
Rat Rod
Modern American
Modern Import

The sponsor for these awards will be “Kraemer Aviation Services”

Special Categories (For each of these there will be just one award)

Best Exotic

Most Unique

Best Pre-War

People’s Choice

Kid’s Choice

For each of the awards below there will be a first place and a second place.

Modified Import

Classic Import

Vintage Motorcycle

Modern Motorcycle

Custom Motorcycle

We will also have one award that will say “Kraemer Aviation Services’ Excellence Award”  – Kraemer Aviation Services will be the sponsor for this award.

To celebrate the Apollo 11 moon landing we will have one award that will say “Kraemer Aviation Services’ Apollo 11 Landing Award” – Kraemer Aviation Services will be the sponsor for this award.  This will be given to the vehicle that has the most technical interest.

Piper Seminole Maneuvers

Written on June 24, 2019 at 6:53 pm, by hkraemer

Piper Seminole Maneuvers

Taxiing Differences
1) Heavier airplane with more momentum. Needs to be taxied slow; cannot stop short.
2) Engines are not in the center. Use caution that propellers do not hit debris, taxiway lights, snowbanks or other obstructions on the left/right. Centerline!
3) Differential power can be used for tight turns. Left throttle to turn right, right throttle to turn left.
4) All turns, especially when vacating the runway must be taken SLOWLY. Side loads are especially bad for retractable landing gear. Sideloads combined with the weight of the engines on the wings can lead to loss of directional control.
5) Always verify clear left/right when pulling out and crossing intersections

Takeoff
1) Line up on centerline, hold brakes, apply power to 2000 RPM
2) Check engine gauges and heading indicator
3) Release brakes and apply full power
4) Call “airspeed alive” and rotate at 75 KIAS
5) Pitch for 88 KIAS
6) “Positive rate, Gear up”
7) At 500′ AGL verify flaps and gear are up, reduce power to “cruise climb” (25″, 2500 RPM)
8) Continue climb at 105 KIAS and complete climb checklist

Short-field takeoff (flaps 25)
1) Line up on centerline, hold brakes, apply power to 2000 RPM
2) Check engine gauges and heading indicator
3) Apply full power, release brakes
4) Call “airspeed alive” and rotate at 63 KIAS
5) Pitch for 67 KIAS
6) “Positive rate, gear up”
7) Upon clearing the obstacle (300′ AGL), accelerate to 75 KIAS (safe speed) and retract the flaps
8) Pitch for 88 KIAS
9) At 500′ AGL verify flaps and gear are up, reduce power to “cruise climb” (25″, 2500 RPM)
10) Continue climb at 105 KIAS and complete climb checklist

Short-field takeoff (flaps 0)
1) Line up on centerline, hold brakes, apply power to 2000 RPM
2) Check engine gauges and heading indicator
3) Apply full power, release brakes
4) Call “airspeed alive” and rotate at 70 KIAS
5) Pitch for 75 KIAS
6) “Positive rate, gear up”
7) Upon clearing the obstacle (300′ AGL), accelerate to 88 KIAS
8) At 500′ AGL verify flaps and gear are up, reduce power to “cruise climb” (25″, 2500 RPM)
9) Continue climb at 105 KIAS and complete climb checklist

Level-off from a climb
1) Slowly lower the pitch to level flight (begin doing this approximately 100′ before desired altitude)
2) Accelerate to cruise speed
3) Reduce manifold pressure FIRST (16″-24″), THEN reduce RPM (2200-2400). 22″ and 2300 RPM works well.
4) Trim
5) Cruise checklist

Transition from cruise to cruise climb
1) Raise pitch (5-10 degrees)
2) Increase RPM to 2500 FIRST, THEN manifold to 25″
3) Trim
4) Maintain 25″ manifold pressure (MP decreases 1 inch/1000 feet)
5) Consider cowl flaps and mixture

Transition from cruise to cruise descent
1) Reduce manifold pressure by 1 inch for each 1000 feet you plan to descend
2) Pitch down (approximately 5 degrees)
3) Trim
4) Consider cowl flaps and mixture

Level off from cruise descent to cruise
1) Raise pitch to level flight
2) Adjust manifold pressure
3) Trim
4) Cruise check
5) Consider cowl flaps and mixture

Acceleration in level flight
1) Increase/check RPM first, then increase manifold pressure
2) Apply forward pressure
3) Trim
4) Consider cowl flaps and mixture

Deceleration in level flight or descent
1) Reduce manifold pressure first, then reduce/increase RPM. Before landing, we reduce manifold pressure before bringing the propellers forward to high RPM to avoid RPM overspeed.
2) Adjust pitch
3) Trim
4) Consider cowl flaps and mixture

Slow Flight in the landing configuration (dirty)
1) Clearing turns
2) Cowl flaps, T, gauges/gauges, gear down, mixture
3) Manifold pressure-no less than 15″
4) Flaps-Extend below 111 KIAS (recommend full flaps before reaching 90 KIAS)
5) Props-full forward/high RPM below 100 KIAS
6) Adjust power to maintain airspeed and altitude
7) Trim for 75 KIAS (See ACS definition of slow flight)
Recovery
8) Increase manifold pressure to 25″, then props back to 2500 RPM
9) Lower the pitch
10) Flaps, gear (below 107), flaps, flaps
11) Cruise checklist

Slow Flight in the takeoff configuration (clean)
1) Clearing turns
2) Cowl flaps, T, gauges/gauges, mixture
3) Manifold pressure-approximately 15″
4) Props-full forward/high RPM below 100 KIAS
5) Adjust power to maintain speed and altitude
6) Trim for 80 KIAS (See ACS definition of slow flight)
Recovery
7) Increase manifold pressure to 25″, then props back to 2500 RPM
8) Lower the pitch
9) Cruise checklist

Power-off stall (landing configuration/dirty)

1) Steps 1-5 of slow flight dirty (maintain altitude)
2) Upon reaching 88 KIAS (blue line/final speed), enter a descent for 3-5 seconds
3) Power to idle
4) Smoothly pivot in place in an attempt to ‘stretch the glide’
5) Hold pitch approximately 10 degrees above the horizon (eyes outside)
6) Recover at the first indication of a stall (see ACS)
Recovery
7) Reduce AoA by lowering the nose slightly below the horizon
8) Apply full power (minimizes the altitude loss)
9) Flaps 40  25
10) Gear up
11) Establish a climb pitch attitude when speed permits
12) Positive rate of climb, Flaps 25 10 then 10  0
13) Level off and cruise checklist at entry altitude

Power-on stall (takeoff configuration/clean)
1) Steps 1-5 of slow flight clean (maintain altitude)
2) Upon reaching 80 KIAS, simultaneously raise the pitch and apply 20″ of manifold pressure
3) Continue to smoothly and steadily increase the pitch
4) Recover at the first indication of a stall (see ACS)
Recovery
5) Reduce AoA by lowering the nose all the way to the horizon
6) Apply full power (minimizes altitude loss)
7) Level off and cruise checklist at entry altitude

Accelerated stall
1) Steps 1-4 of slow flight clean (maintain altitude)
2) Nose up trim
3) Verify left is clear
4) Between 90-100 KIAS, idle both throttles and roll into a 45-degree bank to the left
5) Try to maintain altitude by increasing back pressure (use nose up trim)
6) Recover at the first indication of a stall (see ACS)
Recovery
7) Release back pressure
8) Roll wings level using coordinated aileron and rudder
9) Apply full power when wings are level (must wait until wings level, reduces risk of a spin)
10) Level off and cruise checklist at entry altitude
11) Repeat steps 1-10 to the right

Steep turns
1) Clearing turns
2) Cowl flaps, T, gauges/gauges, mixture
3) Adjust power so that airplane is below maneuvering speed (20″, 2300 RPM)
4) Select a heading and/or landmark
5) Verify clear left
6) Smoothly roll into a 50-55-degree left turn using coordinated aileron and rudder; trim as needed
7) Smoothly roll out from the left turn into a 50-55-degree turn to the right (begin doing this approximately 25 degrees of heading before entry heading.)
8) At the completion of the 360-degree right turn, level off and complete the cruise checklist

Emergency descent
1) Clearing turns
2) Power idle, propellers full forward, mixture rich
3) Gear down below 140 KIAS
4) Cowl flaps closed, T
5) Pitch down for 130 KIAS
6) Make left/right clearing turns or spiral left
Recovery/Cleanup
7) Level the wings and begin leveling off 200-300 feet before desired altitude
8) Hold altitude with pitch until speed drops below 107 KIAS
9) Retract landing gear below 107 KIAS
10) Immediately apply 25″ manifold pressure
11) Accelerate to cruise speed
12) Cruise checklist

VMC Demo
1) Steps 1-4 of slow flight clean (maintain altitude)
2) Left cowl flap closed; right cowl flap open
3) Declare a heading/visual reference to maintain
4) Before reaching 90 KIAS, bring the left throttle to idle and the right throttle to full
5) Slowly pitch up to decrease speed by 1 KIAS per second
6) Increase rudder and aileron to maintain heading
7) Recover upon losing directional control or at the first indication of a stall
Recovery
8) Idle the throttle on the working engine. Remember to release rudder pressure as you do this.
9) Lower the nose below the horizon
10) SLOWLY bring the power back up on the right engine
11) Regain single engine straight and level flight
12) Resume normal flight with both engines
13) Level off and cruise checklist at entry altitude

Engine failure during the takeoff roll
1) Both throttles: Idle
2) Regain directional control: Parallel the centerline
3) Return to centerline
4) Apply braking
5) Notify the Tower or CTAF of aborted takeoff

Engine failure (left) below 1000 feet AGL
1) Maintain directional control and blue line
2) Mixtures full, props full, throttles full
3) Flaps up, gear up
4) Slap left leg and touch left throttle while announcing “left leg dead, left engine dead”
5) Verify left engine is dead by bringing the throttle back. If the airplane yaws, the left engine is not dead. You may have had a partial power failure, or you may have misidentified the dead engine.
6) Announce “left foot dead, left prop feather” and “left foot dead, left mixture idle-cutoff”
7) Close the cowl flap on the dead engine
8) Complete the feather checklist when time and altitude permit
9) Continue flying straight until reaching 1000′ AGL before attempting a turn back to the runway.
10) Declare an emergency with ATC and begin preparations for a single engine landing

Transitioning back to normal flight from simulated single engine flight (bottom to top)
1) Cowl flaps as required
2) Carb heat off
3) Propellers 2500 RPM
4) Slowly bring manifold pressure to 25″ while releasing rudder pressure
5) Accelerate to cruise speed
6) Throttles-desired manifold pressure for cruise
7) Props-desired RPM for cruise
8) Trim
9) Cruise checklist

Landing gear fails to extend
1) Recycle the gear selector handle (move it up, then back down)
2) Troubleshoot: Master switch on, Nav-lights switch off, indicator bulbs in, circuit breakers in
3) Leave the pattern: Find a safe and quiet area/altitude to continue troubleshooting. Notify ATC. Make sure to maintain situational awareness while troubleshooting (Eastern Airlines Flight 401)
4) Emergency Gear Extension: Reduce speed below 100 KIAS. Place gear selector in the down position. Pull the emergency gear extension knob. Leave this knob out…only maintenance can push it back in. Verify 3 green, no red.
One or more wheels not indicating down and locked
5) Yaw: If left gear does not lock in place, yaw left. If right gear does not lock, yaw right. If nose gear does not lock, use pitch. Ensure airspeed is at or below 100 KIAS.
6) Bulbs: Check that the green indicator bulbs are pushed all the way in. If one is unlit, swap it with a working one. If a green bulb is blown, the red light will most likely be unlit.
7) Test the gear horn: Bring throttles to idle and extend flaps past 25 degrees. If gear horn does not sound, landing gear is most likely down and locked.
Landing without positive confirmation of all 3 gear down and locked
8) Declare an emergency: Clearly explain your situation to ATC. Tell ATC what you need (long/wide runway, emergency services). Be prepared to provide information regarding fuel and souls onboard.
9) Make a low approach: Do a flyby of the tower or a low pass so that your gear can be inspected. ATC can tell you that your gear appears to be down, not if your gear is truly down and locked.
10) Notify ATC of your intensions to land: Let ATC know of your intentions to land (when you are ready). Inform them that you will be evacuating on the runway regardless of the outcome.
11) Land: Touch down smoothly on the positively locked main gear using a slip. If the nose gear is not locked, hold it off as long as possible. Avoid making turns (side loads) and avoid braking if able. Secure engines on landing rollout. Master switch off. Evacuate on the runway. Do not taxi. Do not try to ‘save’ the engines by shutting down on final as you may need to go around.

Engine failure troubleshoot flow
1) Fuel selector: On
2) Primer: Locked
3) Carburetor heat: On
4) Mixture: Set
5) Magnetos: On
6) Fuel pump: On

Engine feather/shutdown
Verbally identify left/right for each component on the checklist that could shut down the engine. This is to avoid inadvertently shutting down your only working engine.
“Left engine dead, left prop feather”
“Left engine dead, left mixture idle-cutoff”
“Left engine dead, left engine magnetos off” (turn off one at a time)
“Left engine dead, left fuel selector off”

T-Strobes, landing light, fuel pumps
Gauges/Gauges-Check left and right engine gauges

PLT012 Commercial Question

Written on June 21, 2019 at 9:52 am, by hkraemer

Given: Aircraft weight is 3,700 pounds.

Airport Pressure Altitude is 4,000 feet.

Temperature at 4,000 feet is 21 degrees C.

Using a normal climb under the given conditions, how much fuel would be used from engine start to a pressure altitude of 12,000 feet.

Click here for FAA Figure 14.

Click here for discussion figure.

The fuel to climb to 4,000 from seal level is 12 pounds and the fuel used to climb to 12,000 feet from sea level is 37 pounds.  The difference is 37 minus 12 equals 25 pounds.

In the notes section of the figure you will see that in #2 you need to increase time, fuel, and distance by 10 percent for each 7 degrees C above standard temperature.  The standard temperature lapse rate is 2 degrees C per 1,000 feet.  And the standard temperature at sea level is 15 degrees C.

Given this info we can get the standard temperature at 4,000 should be 7 degrees C (15 degrees C at sea level and the lapse rate is 2 degrees C per 1,000 feet or 15 degrees C – 8 degrees equals 7 degrees C).

So in the question “Given” section, our temperature of 21 degrees C is 14 degrees above standard.  We have to increase the fuel by 10 percent for each 7 degrees above standard, you multiply standard conditions use by 120 percent for 14 degrees C over standard.

The fuel needed to climb is 30 pounds or 25 pounds times 1.20.

You also need to add 16 pounds of fuel for engine start, taxi, and takeoff.  So 30 pounds plus 16 pounds equals 46 pounds.

KTUS METAR

Written on June 18, 2019 at 4:33 pm, by hkraemer

KTUS……..08004KT 4SM HZ……26/04 A2995 RMK RAE36

Today in Aviation History
July 21, 1921: Brig. Gen. William S. Mitchell stages a demonstration using Army planes in which two battleships are sunk solely by bombs dropped by a/c. This event marked the beginning of the change in role for aircraft carriers in the USN.