Solo Endorsements

Written on May 24, 2019 at 8:56 am, by hkraemer

STUDENT PILOT ENDORSEMENTS – From AC 61-65H May 2019

A.3 Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge: § 61.87(b).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has satisfactorily completed the pre-solo knowledge test of § 61.87(b) for the [make and model] aircraft.

A.4 Pre-solo flight training: § 61.87(c)(1) and (2).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged pre-solo flight training for the maneuvers and procedures that are appropriate to the [make and model] aircraft. I have determined [he or she] has demonstrated satisfactory proficiency and safety on the maneuvers and procedures required by § 61.87 in this or similar make and model of aircraft to be flown.

A.5 Pre-solo flight training at night: § 61.87(o). Flight training must be received within the 90 calendar-day period preceding the date of the flight.
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received flight training at night on night flying procedures that include takeoffs, approaches, landings, and go-arounds at night at the [airport name] airport where the solo flight will be conducted; navigation training at night in the vicinity of the [airport name] airport where the solo flight will be conducted.
This endorsement expires 90 calendar-days from the date the flight training at night was received.

A.6 Solo flight (first 90 calendar-day period): § 61.87(n).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have determined [he or she] meets the applicable requirements of § 61.87(n) and is proficient to make solo flights in [make and model]. 

A.7 Solo flight (each additional 90 calendar-day period): § 61.87(p).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have determined that [he or she] meets the applicable requirements of § 61.87(p) and is proficient to make solo flights in [make and model].

A.8 Solo takeoffs and landings at another airport within 25 nautical miles (NM): § 61.93(b)(1). I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.93(b)(1). I have determined that [he or she] is proficient to practice solo takeoffs and landings at [airport name]. The takeoffs and landings at [airport name] are subject to the
following conditions: [List any applicable conditions or limitations.]

A.9 Solo cross-country flight: § 61.93(c)(1) and (2).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required solo cross-country training. I find [he or she] has met the applicable requirements of § 61.93, and is proficient to make solo cross-country flights in a [make and model] aircraft, [aircraft category].

A.10 Solo cross-country flight: § 61.93(c)(3).
I have reviewed the cross-country planning of [First name, MI, Last name]. I find the planning and preparation to be correct to make the solo flight from [origination airport] to [origination airport] via [route of flight] with landings at [names of the airports] in a [make and model] aircraft on [date]. [List any applicable conditions or limitations.]

A.11 Repeated solo cross-country flights not more than 50 NM from the point of departure: § 61.93(b)(2). I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training in both directions between and at both [airport names]. I have determined that [he or she] is proficient of § 61.93(b)(2) to conduct repeated solo cross-country flights over that route,
subject to the following conditions: [List any applicable conditions or limitations.]

A.12 Solo flight in Class B airspace: § 61.95(a).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.95(a). I have determined [he or she] is proficient to conduct solo flights in [name of Class B] airspace. [List any applicable conditions or limitations.]

A.13 Solo flight to, from, or at an airport located in Class B airspace: § 61.95(b) and 14 CFR part 91, § 91.131(b)(1). I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.95(b)(1). I have determined that [he or she] is proficient to conduct solo flight
operations at [name of airport]. [List any applicable conditions or limitations.]

A.14 Endorsement of U.S. citizenship recommended by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA): Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) § 1552.3(h). The flight instructor must keep a copy of the documents used to provide proof of citizenship for 5 years or make the following endorsement in the student’s logbook and the instructor’s logbook or other record used to record flight student endorsements with the following: I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has presented me a [type of document presented, such as a U.S. birth certificate or U.S. passport, and the relevant control or sequential number on the document, if any] establishing that [he or she] is a U.S. citizen or national in accordance with 49 CFR § 1552.3(h).

GUMPS

Written on May 23, 2019 at 7:53 pm, by hkraemer

G – Gas (Fuel on the proper tank, fuel pump on as required, positive fuel pressure)
U – Undercarriage (landing gear down)
M – Mixture (fuel mixture set)
P – Propeller (prop set)
S – Seat belts and Switches (lights, pitot heat, etc.)

BLITTS

Written on May 23, 2019 at 7:18 pm, by hkraemer

B = boost pump on

L = lights as required

I = instruments set

T = transponder on

T = takeoff time noted

S = seat, belts, doors secured

Lights Camera Action

Written on May 23, 2019 at 6:58 pm, by hkraemer

CIGAR

Written on May 23, 2019 at 6:40 pm, by hkraemer

CIGAR Runup/Ground Check
C controls check
I instruments set
G gas (proper tank, pump on, etc)
A attitude (flaps, trim, etc.)
R runup

A TOMATO FLAMES

Written on May 22, 2019 at 7:26 pm, by hkraemer

To help remember 91.205(b) (VFR Day Instrument Requirements) we’ll use A TOMATO FLAMES. Once filled out it looks something like this
A – airspeed indicator
T – tachometer (for each engine)
O – oil pressure gauge (for each engine using a pressure system)
M – manifold pressure gauge (for each altitude engine)
A – altimeter
T – temperature gauge (for each liquid cooled engine)
O – oil temperature gauge (for each air cooled engine)
F – fuel gauge
L – landing gear position indicator
A – anti collision lights (for aircraft certified after March 11th 1996)
M – magnetic compass
E – ELT
S – safety belts

Flymall Wheels & Wings April 2019 Newsletter

Written on April 27, 2019 at 9:16 am, by hkraemer

Kraemer Aviation Services: Your one stop website for everything Wheels & Wings. Sales, appraisals, news, tech tips, events, and more.

Welcome to the Kraemer Aviation / Flymall Wheels & Wings April 2019 Newsletter.  Lots of exciting items this month.  Click here for past newsletters. Click here for our April 2019 newsletter.

We have a limited supply of used headsets for sale. For details click here. We also have an older STS handheld transceiver for sale. We’re selling the transceiver for half of what they go for on ebay.

Earlier this month we celebrated Easter Sunday and Harry & Pat hosted an Easter dinner poolside at their home.


 

History Trivia:  Have you ever thought about how the US adopted the current tail number system for all US registered aircraft.  Click here to find out.  

How many Beatles fans have ever heard of the Nerk Twins?  John & Paul did one gig together as a duo (under the name Nerk Twins) on April 23 1960.  Click here to read more.

Achievements & Special Recognition:  Pat’s student Uma recently earned her Private Pilot Certificate.  You may remember Uma, her and Pat hit a goose with this very aircraft.  Click here for the post about the goose

 

Harry recently said goodbye to an old friend. Detour Dave as he was known.  Detour Dave was an airborne traffic reporter in the 80s and 90s. Harry flew him around in the early 1980s.

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  Harry recently attended DPE class at FAA headquarters in Oklahoma City.  He passed the final exam missing only one question.  Harry should be up and running as a DPE in late April or early May.  Visit the new Practical Test section of the Flymall for more information.  Below is a picture of Harry at the school in Oklahoma City. 

Here are a few rare pictures of Harry doing what he loves to do, fly airplanes.

Car/Motorcycle Show News:  The Flymall team attended the annual Laytonsville Volunteer Fire Department all you can eat roast beef and shrimp dinner.  The fire department will often bring their 1930 Brockway Fire Truck to Harry’s Laytonsville Cruise In.  In fact, a few of the firemen that work there own their own vintage fire trucks.  If you enjoy looking at fire trucks close up and shrimp & beef, this annual dinner is for you.  In addition to the 1930 Brockway, they have several other older fire trucks that are kept in working condition.  Click here for more pictures from the event.

Here is their 1930 Brockway.

 

Here’s some good news for our classic car and motorcycle friends/fans.  Harry is becoming a broker for Hagerty Collector Car insurance.  We can appraise your collector vehicle and now we can offer insurance to you as well.  The Flymall Wheels & Wings site is becoming your one stop site for all of your wheels and wings needs.

The Flymall team attended one of District Harley Davidson Saturday morning breakfast.  Jett is very welcome there and she usually makes their Facebook page.

 

The team also attended the annual Gas & Steam Engine Show at the Agriculture Center in Derwood Maryland.  Click here for pictures from the event.

Here’s Harry’s YouTube video highlighting the show.

 

 

Harry, Pat, and Jett also attended the annual Howard County Motorcycle Swap Meet.

For the “gearheads”, earlier this month we celebrated April 27.

 

Want to know where the Flymall team will be next?  Visit our appearance calendar by clicking here.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  In the past we have brought you barn finds and hangar finds in this section.  This month we have a first for the newsletter.  We have a wall find.

CFI / DPE Notes:  Visit our new Practical Test page on the Flymall.  Harry will be available to speak at flight school monthly meetings sharing his experience as a long time active flight instructor (over 33 years) and pilot examiner.  Harry is in the process of making his Question & Answer section open to the public for a small fee.  Click here for a slide show highlighting the Question & Answer section.

Weather in the news:  On Friday April 5 2019 we had another storm system moving from west to east that stretched from the southern border all the way up into Canada.

 

Check out the TAFs for BWI and IAD for April 27 2019.  Some strong winds for a spring frontal passage.

 

Three Wheel Association (TWA):  Harry is currently speaking with the owner of 3-wheelers.com to purchase the website.  This will be a great addition to TWA and Harry’s 3 wheeler museum.

At the Gas and Steam engine show Harry spotted a rare piece of farm equipment made in 1836, a 1836 Dain Steel Safety Corn Cutter. Click here for some pictures of the one spotted at the show.

Here is what it should look like.

At the same show there was a half scale replica of an 1886 Olds 3 wheeler. This was the very first Oldsmobile.  The builder and owner is an old friend of Harry’s and there are plans for the builder to build another one for Harry’s collection. 

John Henry Knight.  Inventor.  Click here for more information on John Henry Knight.

Prototypes:  Just like the wall find we highlighted in our Barn Finds section, here is another one of a kind! A factory 1 of 1 1971 GTO Judge Wagon. Special ordered from the factory and signed off on by Jim Wangers and John DeLorean themselves.

Animals in the headlines:  Meet Juji the dog.  A Facebook find by Harry.  A photographer that started a story about his dog that grew to a very large size.  It was just a story, the pictures are done in PhotoShop.  Still, very cool!

 

 

 

We close this newsletter with these words of wisdom:  Begin each day with your favorite music.

METAR Examples

Written on April 15, 2019 at 6:22 pm, by hkraemer

Examples of METAR reports and explanation:

METAR KBNA 281250Z 33018KT 290V360 1/2SM R31/2700FT SN BLSN FG VV008 00/M03 A2991 RMK RAE42SNB42

METAR aviation routine weather
report
KBNA Nashville, TN
281250Z date 28th, time 1250 UTC
(no modifier) This is a manually generated
report, due to the absence of
“AUTO” and “AO1 or AO2”
in remarks
33018KT wind three three zero at one
eight
290V360 wind variable between
two nine zero and three six
zero
1/2SM visibility one half
R31/2700FT Runway three one RVR two
thousand seven hundred
SN moderate snow

BLSN FG visibility obscured by
blowing snow and fog
VV008 indefinite ceiling eight
hundred
00/M03 temperature zero, dew point
minus three
A2991 altimeter two niner niner one
RMK remarks
RAE42 rain ended at four two
SNB42 snow began at four two

METAR KSFO 041453Z AUTO VRB02KT 3SM BR CLR 15/12 A3012 RMK AO2

METAR aviation routine weather
report
KSFO San Francisco, CA
041453Z date 4th, time 1453 UTC
AUTO fully automated; no human
intervention
VRB02KT wind variable at two
3SM visibility three
BR visibility obscured by mist
CLR no clouds below one two
thousand
15/12 temperature one five, dew
point one two
A3012 altimeter three zero one two
RMK remarks
AO2 this automated station has a
weather discriminator (for
precipitation)

SPECI KCVG 152224Z 28024G36KT 3/4SM +TSRA BKN008 OVC020CB 28/23 A3000 RMK TSRAB24 TS W MOV E

SPECI (nonroutine) aviation special
weather report
KCVG Cincinnati, OH
152228Z date 15th, time 2228 UTC
(no modifier) This is a manually generated
report due to the absence of

“AUTO” and “AO1 or AO2”
in remarks
28024G36KT wind two eight zero at
two four gusts three six
3/4SM visibility three fourths
+TSRA thunderstorms, heavy rain
BKN008 ceiling eight hundred broken
OVC020CB two thousand overcast
cumulonimbus clouds
28/23 temperature two eight,
dew point two three
A3000 altimeter three zero zero zero RMK remarks
TSRAB24 thunderstorm and rain began
at two four
TS W MOV E thunderstorm west moving
east

Flymall Wheels & Wings March 2019 Newsletter

Written on March 14, 2019 at 9:42 am, by hkraemer

Welcome to the Kraemer Aviation / Flymall Wheels & Wings March 2019 Newsletter.  Lots of exciting items this month.  Click here for past newsletters.  Click here for our March 2019 newsletter.

Earlier in March, the Flymall team attended their annual FAA FAAST Team Rep training at the College Park Airport.  Afterwards they spent some time in the College Park Aviation Museum.  Great place, with lots of aviation history.  Click here for some pictures of their visit to the museum.

The Flymall is your one stop source for pilot supplies, automotive parts, appraisals, real estate, aircraft sales, and more. We have a limited supply of used headsets for sale. For details click here. We also have an older STS handheld transceiver for sale. We’re selling the transceiver for half of what they go for on ebay.

In late February Harry visited his hometown of Dundalk Maryland and stopped in the famous Herman’s Bakery for a few of their famous strawberry shortcakes.  A few (he purchased 6 of them)!!!

 

 

This month we’re introducing a new section to our newsletter, History Trivia.  We’ll have something new each month.  We also have a “Today in Aviation History” fact at the bottom of our webpages each day. 

History Trivia: Does the name John Coffey ring a bell?  John Coffey was a crew member on the Titanic.  He snuck off in Queenstown Ireland.  Some reports say that he had a bad feeling about the trip, possibility a disaster was going to happen.  Father Francis Browne was another passenger that got off of Titanic in Queenstown Ireland.  Browne is best known for his pictures he took of the Titanic and the crew before he disembarked. 

Earlier in March we remembered George Martin, The Beatles producer.  He passed away on March 8 2016.  Many do not know that George Martin played on many Beatles songs.  You can visit March 8 in our Events Calendar to see the list of songs George Martin played on.  This date along with many other Beatles dates are listed in our Events Calendar.

Achievements & Special RecognitionEarlier in March we helped another aircraft broker sell this fine looking Socata TB20.  There’re usually very hard to sell since there is not a big market for them.  We sold the aircraft is less then a month to one of our repeat customers.  Like most of our aircraft sales, this was purchased sight unseen based on our good reputation.

It has taken years to build up an excellent sales reputation and to be able to sell aircraft sight unseen.  We’re proud of that

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  Chances are that if you go to an airshow this season, you will see a jet powered aircraft fly.  Are you familiar with the dawn of the jet age?  The jet engine had a slow start with numerous setbacks.  The jet engine wasn’t always smooth sailing. Frank Whittle is credited with inventing the turbojet engine.  Whittle started tinkering with engine design in the 1920s.  He first started with a motorjet design. He soon discovered that a motorjet would weigh as much as a conventional piston engine of the day, so the motorjet idea was scrapped.  That is when he switched to the turbine idea.  Whittle has numerous setbacks and delays, some due to financial reasons.  Meanwhile in Germany, Hans von Ohain had started work on a prototype in 1935, and had by this point passed the prototype stage and was building the world’s first flyable Jet aircraft, the Heinkel HeS 3. Whittle did not have a jet aircraft flying until 1941 while Hans von Ohain had a jet flying by 1939.  Both Whittle and von Ohain had setbacks and numerous other issues, however, they started the jet age of flight.

Ira Walker of Walker Aviation is the shop for restoration of your fabric wing aircraft.  Ira is a long time advertiser on the Flymall.  Ira also restores and builds Snow Cars.  Click on the image below to be redirected to Ira’s Facebook post about his Snow Cars.  You can also visit Ira’s Facebook page called Forgotten Transportation of America for more interesting videos on his snow cars.  You can access Ira’s page on the Flymall by clicking here.

 

Car/Motorcycle Show News:  Numerous air show and car show events have been added to our Events Calendar.  You can also visit the Day Tripper section of the Flymall for fun and unique places to visit, like Jules’ Undersea LodgeThe Laytonsville Cruise In is 10 years old this year.  We have a lot of new special events for the cruise in this year.

Here are just a few of the surprises for the Laytonsville Cruise In this year:

We plan to have a sponsor for the opening cruise in (May 17). Free ice cream if you drive a classic vehicle. 

June, July, August, September – The TFR and Kraemer Aviation will sponsor awards for the 3rd Friday of each month for awards. We plan to mix it up as far as voting goes: Popular vote, Judges, Participant votes. 

We may also have various food trucks on Friday.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  The Flymall Forum is a great resource for reports on various vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft, and more.  You can add a review or just see what others have written.  The forum is accessible from our home page Flymall.org.   The forum has a lot of other useful information such as a section on Home Improvement and a Pilots and Pets section. 

This month we have a hangar find.  Harry has located a Beechcraft Sundowner that has been sitting for a while in a hangar.  It does have some current damage and damage history.  This would be a great buy for someone just for the engine.  Click here for details

Our Market Watch is a valuable tool for researching prices for various vehicles, aircraft, collectibles, and more.  It is smart phone friendly and easy to use.  For many vehicles (aircraft, automobiles, motorcycles, etc) our Market Watch is the only database available to view price data.

CFI / DPE Notes:  Visit the new Practical Test page on the Flymall.  Harry has a Question & Answer database that references the Airman Certification Standards with the Knowledge Test Codes.  You can also look up a Knowledge Test Code and see the FAA questions for that code. Harry plans to have FAA test figures referenced as well as the FAA figures for all of the maneuvers required on a Practical Test.  You can search it by key words.  You can search it by the different Areas of Operation in the ACS or PTS.  It is a work in progress.  It will soon be available to the public for a small fee for a year access.   Click here for sample screenshots of the database.  We’re considering a $12 per year fee for access to the database.  If you interested you can leave some feedback in the comment section below.

Weather in the news March 3 2019 winter storm.

 

Here is a video showing some tornado damage at an airport.  This was from early in March.

March 9 2019 storm that stretched from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.

 

Three Wheel Association (TWA) Morgan, Darmont, Sandford???  What is the connection?

About the time of WWI, a French gentleman named Robert Darmont started his business as a importer of the Morgan 3 wheeler from England.  After the war he obtained a license from Morgan to build the Morgan 3 wheeler in France.  The Darmont-Morgan was born.  The Morgan and Darmont-Morgan are basically identical, although one was built in France.  Pictured below is a 1926 Darmont Special.

Stewart Sandford, another French gentleman was selling the Morgan 3 wheeler in France. Stewart saw the need for a faster, more powerful 3 wheeler so he designed the Sandford 3 wheeler.  It had a 4 cylinder Ruby engine in it.  Very different from the Morgan. The Sandford is all steel with the engine fully enclosed.  The Morgan F series 3 wheeler did have an enclosed engine.  A Sandford is pictured below.

Both the Darmont and Sandford are often confused as Morgan Three Wheelers.

Prototypes:  This month we’re featuring some GM concept cars and prototypes. Here is an interesting GM concept car, the Corsair.

Here is an older post we did just on the Chevy Camaro and some of the Camaro concepts.  From his very early teens, Harry was a Camaro man.  His first car was a 1972 Camaro.  He soon added a second Camaro, because two are better than one.  Pictured below is Harry with his 1972 Camaro.

 

Animals in the headlines:  This month our own Jett is in the headlines.  She often accompanies Harry on aircraft sales trips and can often be found just hanging out at the airport.  Click here for her page on the Flymall.

 

We close this newsletter with these words:  Become the most positive and enthusiastic person you know.

Flying Cars, Past, Present, & Future

Written on February 20, 2019 at 4:09 pm, by hkraemer

As a young child in the early 1960s I grew up hanging out in the garage with my father, at the marina with my grandfather, and at small local airports.  My interest in flying cars started about that time.  Around 1963 I was given a book called “The Golden Stamp Book of Automobiles of Today and Yesterday”.  I still have this book and the price tag on it was 42 cents.  The last car featured in the book was called the “Ford Dream Car”.  It was an atomic powered car that could fly.  It was around this time that the United States was in the space race with Russia.  In school, classes were stopped to watch our rockets being launched.  As a young child seeing the Ford Dream Car and watching rockets being launched into space, I became very excited about flying cars.  I would see sports cars of the 1960s like the Corvette Stingray and tell my dad that car could be made into a flying car.  I would often draw cars with wings on them.  The book I received in the 1960s has developed into a very large collection of flying car related memorabilia, models, books, videos, and other miscellaneous items.

Fast forward to the 1980s and I have my pilot’s license.  And my interest in flying cars was still there.  It was when I started using small aircraft to travel that I realized how practical a flying car would be.  After renting an airplane, I still needed to rent a car to get to my final destination.

Flying cars are just about as old as airplanes.  Glenn Curtiss is credited with having the first flying car.  It was 1917 When Glenn Curtiss showed the world his “Autoplane” at the Pan-American Aeronautical Exposition in New York City.  This was only 14 years after the Wright Bros first flew and just nine years after the Model T was introduced.

Over the 100 plus years of powered flight, there have been numerous attempts to build a flying car.  In the 1930s Waldo Waterman designed and built a 3 wheel flying car called the Aerobile.  The wings were detachable for ground operations.  Powered by a water cooled, six cylinder, Franklin (Tucker) engine, in the air, it was capable of speeds as high as 110 miles per hour.  A prototype flew in 1937, a total of six were made.  As with many of Waldo Waterman’s designs, this was tailless.

After the birth of powered flight and once the average person could get a pilot’s license, we soon discovered that general aviation aircraft only got you close to your destination.  Once you landed, you still needed ground transportation.  Flying cars/roadable aircraft were born practically out of necessity.   This is very true with Robert Fulton and his Airphibian.  During WWII Robert traveled a lot by small aircraft only to wait at the airport for his ground transportation.  He thought if only my small airplane could drive me to town.  And in 1946 Robert Fulton designed the Airphibian.  It could convert from plane to car in about 5 minutes with no tools.  It has been reported that the Airphibian was as easy to drive as it was to fly.  It could fly at speeds up to 110 MPH and 55 MPH on the ground.  The drawback to Fulton’s design was that you had to detach the wings and leave them at the airport.

Molt Taylor and his Aerocar made an appearance around 1950. Molt Taylor met Robert Fulton and saw his Airphibian.  Molt had a better idea.  Why not make the wings fold back and form a trailer?  This way if you had to land because of bad weather, you could continue on to your destination with the wings in tow.  Once the weather improved, reconnect the wings and you’re back in the air.  Two models of the Aerocar were build.

Fast forward to the 21st century we find the Switchblade, a 3 wheel flying motorcycle.   Still in the development stage, the plans are to offer the Switchblade as a kit.  The Switchblade is built of carbon fiber and other new light weight materials.  The company hopes to have a prototype flying by the end of 2019.

There is a flying car that you can purchase now.  The PAL-V built by the Dutch company PAL-V International BV.  Their vehicle is an autogyro or gyrocopter that is capable of being driving on public roads.  The last check of their website shows a price of $399,000 USD for their basic model.

These are just a few of the attempts to build and market a successful flying car or roadable aircraft.  Over the past 100 plus years there have been numerous attempts, some never making it past the drawing stage.

But as the 21st century begins, there are many visionary companies that see a world filled with cars that fly. Some are nearly ready for production, some will be all electric, some will be based on motorcycle frames.  The industry is in a technological revolution, much like cars at the dawn of the last century.

Today in Aviation History
May 25, 1927: Lt. James A. Doolittle files the first outside loop in a Curtiss P-1-B pursuit plane at McCook Field. Starting at an altitude of 8000 ft Doolittle pointed the nose of the a/c down and describes a circle of 2000 ft diameter, leveling out at his original altitude. At the bottom of the circle, flying inverted, it is estimated that his a/c was traveling at 280 mph. The outside loop had not been previously attempted because of fear that the a/c would disintegrate. [Note: French pilot Pegoud is purported to have performed outside loops prior to this date.]