Instrument Rating Part 141 Requirements

Written on September 4, 2019 at 6:57 am, by hkraemer

Part 141 Appendix C

Each approved course must include at least the following ground training on the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section appropriate to the instrument rating for which the course applies:

(1) 30 hours of training if the course is for an initial instrument rating.

(2) 20 hours of training if the course is for an additional instrument rating.

(b) Ground training must include the following aeronautical knowledge areas:

(1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations for IFR flight operations;

(2) Appropriate information in the “Aeronautical Information Manual”;

(3) Air traffic control system and procedures for instrument flight operations;

(4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems;

(5) Use of IFR en route and instrument approach procedure charts;

(6) Procurement and use of aviation weather reports and forecasts, and the elements of forecasting weather trends on the basis of that information and personal observation of weather conditions;

(7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft under instrument flight rules and conditions;

(8) Recognition of critical weather situations and windshear avoidance;

(9) Aeronautical decision making and judgment; and

(10) Crew resource management, to include crew communication and coordination.

4. Flight training.

(a) Each approved course must include at least the following flight training on the approved areas of operation listed in paragraph (d) of this section, appropriate to the instrument-aircraft category and class rating for which the course applies:

(1) 35 hours of instrument training if the course is for an initial instrument rating.

(2) 15 hours of instrument training if the course is for an additional instrument rating.

(b) For the use of full flight simulators, flight training devices, or aviation training devices –

(1) The course may include training in a full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device, provided it is representative of the aircraft for which the course is approved, meets the requirements of this paragraph, and the training is given by an authorized instructor.

(2) Credit for training in a full flight simulator that meets the requirements of § 141.41(a) cannot exceed 50 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the course or of this section, whichever is less.

(3) Credit for training in a flight training device that meets the requirements of § 141.41(a), an advanced aviation training device that meets the requirements of § 141.41(b), or a combination of these devices cannot exceed 40 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the course or of this section, whichever is less. Credit for training in a basic aviation training device that meets the requirements of § 141.41(b) cannot exceed 25 percent of the total training hour requirements permitted under this paragraph.

(4) Credit for training in full flight simulators, flight training devices, and aviation training devices if used in combination, cannot exceed 50 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the course or of this section, whichever is less. However, credit for training in a flight training device or aviation training device cannot exceed the limitation provided for in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(c) Each approved course must include the following flight training –

(1)For an instrument airplane course: Instrument training time from a certificated flight instructor with an instrument rating on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d) of this section including at least one cross-country flight that –

(i) Is in the category and class of airplane that the course is approved for, and is performed under IFR;

(ii) Is a distance of at least 250 nautical miles along airways or ATC-directed routing with one segment of the flight consisting of at least a straight-line distance of 100 nautical miles between airports;

(iii) Involves an instrument approach at each airport; and

(iv) Involves three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.

Kraemer Aviation / Flymall.org August 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter

Written on August 28, 2019 at 3:09 pm, by hkraemer

Welcome to the Flymall.org August 2019 newsletter.

You can view past newsletters by clicking here.  You can view our August 2019 newsletter here.

History Trivia:  August 14, 1935: Will Rogers and Wiley Post were killed in a takeoff crash near Point Barrow, Alaska.  Did you know that we have a new aviation history fact each day at the bottom of our web pages?  On some days, we have more than one, simply refresh your web browser to see if we have more than one fact.   See Flymall.org.

Achievements & Special Recognition:  Pat’s student Noah passed his Private Pilot Checkride earlier this month.  Congratulations.  It was in June of 2018 that Noah did his first solo.  Click here for our June 2018 Newsletter highlighting his first solo. 

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  Honda is now in the aviation business.  Introducing the Honda Jet!!  Enjoy!!!

On a sadder note, Captain Al Haynes of United Airlines Flight 232 passed away earlier this month.

Car/Motorcycle Show News:  The Laytonsville Cruise In has gain popularity this year with Harry’s Award Night.  Visit the Laytonsville Cruise In page on the Flymall Wheels & Wings page.  You can also find the cruise in on Facebook under Laytonsville Cruise In.

Visit our Events Calendar for more local and national events.  You can also visit the Day Tripper section of the Flymall for interesting places to visit.

More sad news for this month.  The fastest woman on 4 wheels, Jessi Combs was killed earlier this month while attempting to break her own land speed record.   She was driving a 52,000 horsepower jet-powered car.  Jessi was a well known racer, fabricator, and television personality.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  We have a Jaguar garage find this month.  Harry is brokering a classic Jaguar for a client.  Click here for more information.

Check out the Tech Tips section of the Flymall for help in restoring your barn find or hangar find.  You can also visit the Test Drive section of the Flymall for reviews on cars, motorcycles, aircraft, and more.

Contact us if you need an appraisal on your barn find.  Click here for more information on our appraisals.

CFI / DPE Notes:  Harry is in to his second full month as a Designated Pilot Examiner and has conducted dozens of checkrides.  Here is Harry with one of his checkride applicants.  Visit Harry’s Practical Test page for information on his checkrides.

Weather in the news: Hurricane Dorian was making the news in late August 2019. 

Three Wheel Association (TWA):  Here is a recent purchase by Harry for the TWA museum.  This is a 3 wheeled wheelchair possibly from the 1850s or 1860s.  For information on this vehicle and others in the collection click here.

Meet Bertha Benz, the first “driver”.  The first “driver” was a driver of a three wheeler.

Click here for more information on the Three Wheel Association.

Prototypes:  For this month we have the XP-897 GT-2-Rotor Corvette.  It looks like a cross between a Corvette, A Mazda, and a Ferrari. 

Animals in the headlines: Our wolf/Husky Jett is in the news this month.  She is always at the car/motorcycle shows with us and helps earn votes for our vehicles.  Click here to visit her page on the Flymall.

We close this newsletter with this:

Instrument Rating Plan Of Action

Written on August 28, 2019 at 9:10 am, by hkraemer

I. Preflight Preparation
A. Pilot Qualifications
B. Weather Information
C. Cross-Country Flight Planning
II. Preflight Procedures
A. Airplane Systems Related to IFR Operations
B. Airplane Flight Instruments and Navigation Equipment
C. Instrument Flight Deck Check
III. Air Traffic Control Clearances and Procedures
A. Compliance with Air Traffic Control Clearances
B. Holding Procedures
IV. Flight by Reference to Instruments 
A. Instrument Flight
B. Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes
V. Navigation Systems
A. Intercepting and Tracking Navigational Systems and Arcs
B. Departure, En Route, and Arrival Operations
VI. Instrument Approach Procedures 
A. Nonprecision Approach
B. Precision Approach
C. Missed Approach
D. Circling Approach
E. Landing from an Instrument Approach
VII. Emergency Operations 
A. Loss of Communications
B. Approach with Loss of Primary Flight Instrument Indicators
VIII. Postflight Procedures 
A. Checking Instruments and Equipment

Eights On Pylons

Written on August 23, 2019 at 9:18 am, by hkraemer

The eights-on-pylons is the most advanced and difficult of the ground reference maneuvers. Because of the techniques involved, the eights-on-pylons are unmatched for developing intuitive control of the airplane. Similar to eights around pylons except altitude is varied to maintain a specific visual reference to the pivot points.

The goal of the eights-on-pylons is to have an imaginary line that extends from the pilot’s eyes to the pylon. This line must be imagined to always be parallel to the airplane’s lateral axis. Along this line, the airplane appears to pivot as it turns around the pylon. In other words, if a taut string extended from the airplane to the pylon, the string would remain parallel to lateral
axis as the airplane turned around the pylon. At no time should the string be at an angle to the lateral axis.  In explaining the performance of eights-on-pylons, the term “wingtip” is frequently considered as being synonymous with the proper visual reference line or pivot point on the
airplane. This interpretation is not always correct. High-wing, low-wing, sweptwing, and tapered wing airplanes, as well as those with tandem or side-by-side seating, all present different angles from the pilot’s eye to the wingtip.

The visual reference line, while not necessarily on the wingtip itself, may be positioned in relation to the wingtip (ahead, behind, above, or below), and differs for each pilot and from each seat in the airplane. This is especially true in tandem (fore and aft) seat airplanes. In side-by-side type airplanes,
there is very little variation in the visual reference lines for different persons, if those persons are seated with their eyes at approximately the same level. Therefore, in the correct performance of eights-on-pylons, as in other maneuvers requiring a lateral reference, the pilot should use a visual
reference line that, from eye level, parallels the lateral axis of the airplane.

The altitude that is appropriate for eights-on-pylons is called the “pivotal altitude” and is determined by the airplane’s groundspeed. In previous ground-track maneuvers, the airplane flies a prescribed path over the ground and the pilot attempts to maintain the track by correcting for the wind. With eights-on-pylons, the pilot maintains lateral orientation
to a specific spot on the ground. This develops the pilot’s ability to maneuver the airplane accurately while dividing attention between the flightpath and the selected pylons on the ground.

An explanation of the pivotal altitude is also essential. First, a good rule of thumb for estimating the pivotal altitude is to square the groundspeed, then divide by 15 (if the groundspeed is in miles per hour) or divide by 11.3 (if the groundspeed is in knots), and then add the mean sea level (MSL) altitude of the ground reference. The pivotal altitude is the altitude at which, for a given groundspeed, the projection of the visual reference line to the pylon appears to pivot.  The pivotal altitude does not vary with the angle of bank unless the bank is steep enough to affect the groundspeed.

Distance from the pylon affects the angle of bank. At any altitude above that pivotal altitude, the projected reference line appears to move rearward in a circular path in relation to the pylon. Conversely, when the airplane is below the pivotal altitude, the projected reference line appears to move forward in a circular path.  To demonstrate this, the pilot will fly at maneuvering speed and at an altitude below the pivotal altitude, and then placed in a medium-banked turn. The projected visual reference line appears to move forward along the ground (pylon moves back) as the airplane turns. The pilot then executes a climb to an altitude well above the
pivotal altitude. When the airplane is again at maneuvering speed, it is placed in a medium-banked turn. At the higher altitude, the projected visual reference line appears to move backward across the ground (pylon moves forward).

After demonstrating the maneuver at a high altitude, the pilot should reduce power and begin a descent at maneuvering speed in a continuing medium bank turn around the pylon. The apparent backward movement of the projected visual reference line with respect to the pylon will slow down as altitude is lost and will eventually stop for an instant. If the pilot continues the descent below the pivotal altitude, the projected visual reference line with respect to the pylon will begin to move forward.

The altitude at which the visual reference line ceases to move across the ground is the pivotal altitude. If the airplane descends below the pivotal altitude, the pilot should increase power to maintain airspeed while regaining altitude to the point at which the projected reference line moves neither backward nor forward but actually pivots on the pylon. In this
way, the pilot can determine the pivotal altitude of the airplane.

The pivotal altitude is critical and changes with variations in groundspeed. Since the headings throughout turns continuously vary from downwind to upwind, the groundspeed constantly changes. This results in the proper pivotal altitude varying slightly throughout the turn. The pilot should adjust
for this by climbing or descending, as necessary, to hold the visual reference line on the pylons. This change in altitude is dependent on the groundspeed.

Selecting proper pylon is an important factor of successfully performing eights-on-pylons. They should be sufficiently prominent so the pilot can view them when completing the turn around one pylon and heading for the next. They should also be adequately spaced to provide time for planning the turns but not spaced so far apart that they cause unnecessary
straight-and-level flight between the pylons. The selected pylons should also be at the same elevation, since differences of over few feet necessitate climbing or descending between each turn. The pilot should select two pylons along a line that lies perpendicular to the direction of the wind. The distance between the pylons should allow for the straight-and-level
flight segment to last from 3 to 5 seconds.

The pilot should estimate the pivotal altitude during preflight planning. Weather reports and consultation with other pilots flying in the area may provide both the wind direction and velocity. If the references are previously known (many flight instructors already have these ground-based reference selected), the sectional chart will provide the MSL of the
references, the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) provides the range of maneuvering airspeeds (based on weight), and the wind direction and velocity can be estimated to calculate the appropriate pivotal altitudes. The pilot should calculate the pivotal altitude for each position: upwind, downwind, and crosswind.

The pilot should begin the eight-on-pylons maneuver by flying diagonally crosswind between the pylons to a point downwind from the first pylon so that the first turn can be made into the wind. As the airplane approaches a position where the pylon appears to be just ahead of the wingtip, the pilot should begin the turn by lowering the upwind wing to the point where the visual reference line aligns with the pylon. The reference line should appear to pivot on the pylon. As the airplane heads upwind, the groundspeed decreases, which lowers the pivotal altitude. As a result, the pilot must descend to hold the visual reference line on the pylon. As
the turn progresses on the upwind side of the pylon, the wind becomes more of a crosswind. Since this maneuver does not require the turn to be completed at a constant radius, the pilot does not need to apply drift correction to complete the turn.

If the visual reference line appears to move ahead of the pylon, the pilot should increase altitude. If the visual reference line appears to move behind the pylon, the pilot should decrease altitude. Deflecting the rudder to yaw the airplane and force the wing and reference line forward or backward to the pylon places the airplane in uncoordinated flight, at low altitude, with steep bank angles and must not be attempted.

As the airplane turns toward a downwind heading, the pilot should rollout from the turn to allow the airplane to proceed diagonally to a point tangent on the downwind side of the second pylon. The pilot should complete the rollout with the proper wind correction angle to correct for wind drift,
so that the airplane arrives at a point downwind from the second pylon that is equal in distance from the pylon as the corresponding point was from the first pylon at the beginning of the maneuver.

At this point, the pilot should begin a turn in the opposite direction by lowering the upwind wing to the point where the visual reference line aligns with the pylon. The pilot should then continue the turn the same way the corresponding turn was performed around the first pylon but in the opposite direction.

With prompt correction, and a very fine control pressures, it is possible to hold the visual reference line directly on the pylon even in strong winds. The pilot may make corrections for temporary variations, such as those caused by gusts or inattention by reducing the bank angle slightly to fly
relatively straight to bring forward a lagging visual reference line or by increasing the bank angle temporarily to turn back a visual reference line that has moved ahead. With practice, these corrections may become slight enough to be barely noticeable. It is important to understand that variations in pylon position are according to the apparent movement of the
visual reference line. Attempting to correct pivotal altitude by the use of the altimeter is ineffective.

Eights-on-pylons are performed at bank angles ranging from shallow to steep.  The pilot should understand that the bank chosen does not alter the pivotal altitude. As proficiency is gained, the instructor should increase the complexity of the maneuver by directing the student to enter
at a distance from the pylon that results in a specific bank angle at the steepest point in the pylon turn.

The most common error in attempting to hold a pylon is incorrect use of the rudder. When the projection of the visual reference line moves forward with respect to the pylon, many pilots tend to apply inside rudder pressure to yaw the wing backward. When the reference line moves behind the pylon, they tend to apply outside rudder pressure to yaw the wing
forward. The pilot should use the rudder only for coordination.

Other common errors in the performance of eights-on pylons are:
• Failure to adequately clear the area above, below,
and on either side of the airplane for safety hazards,
initially and throughout the maneuver.
• Poor selection of ground references.
• Failure to establish a constant, level altitude prior to
entering the maneuver.
• Failure to maintain adequate altitude control during
the maneuver.
• Failure to properly assess wind direction.

• Failure to properly execute constant radius turns.
• Failure to manipulate the flight controls in a smooth
and continuous manner.
• Failure to establish the appropriate wind correction
angles.
• Failure to apply coordinated aileron and rudder
pressure, resulting in slips or skids.
• Failure to maintain orientation as the maneuver
progresses.

Commercial Pilot Plan of Action

Written on August 13, 2019 at 1:45 pm, by hkraemer

I. Preflight Preparation
A. Pilot Qualifications
B. Airworthiness Requirements
C. Weather Information
D. Cross-Country Flight Planning
E. National Airspace System
F. Performance and Limitations
G. Operation of Systems
H. Human Factors0

II. Preflight Procedures
A. Preflight Assessment
B. Flight Deck Management
C. Engine Starting
D. Taxiing (ASEL, AMEL)
E. Before Takeoff Check

III. Airport and Seaplane Base Operations
A. Communications, Light Signals, and Runway Lighting Systems
B. Traffic Patterns

IV. Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds
A. Normal Takeoff and Climb
B. Normal Approach and Landing
C. Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb (ASEL)
D. Soft-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL)
E. Short-Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASEL, AMEL)
F. Short-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL, AMEL)
G. Power-Off 180° Accuracy Approach and Landing (ASEL, ASES)
H. Go-Around/Rejected Landing

V.  Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers

A. Steep Turns

B. Steep Spiral (ASEL, ASES)

C. Chandelles (ASEL, ASES)

D. Lazy Eights (ASEL, ASES)

E. Eights on Pylons (ASEL, ASES)

VI. Navigation
A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
B. Navigation Systems and Radar Services
C. Diversion
D. Lost Procedures

VII. Slow Flight and Stalls
A. Maneuvering During Slow Flight
B. Power-Off Stalls
C. Power-On Stalls
D. Accelerated Stalls
E. Spin Awareness

VIII. High Altitude Operations
A. Supplemental Oxygen
B. Pressurization

IX. Emergency Operations
A. Emergency Descent
B. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL, ASES)
C. Systems and Equipment Malfunctions
D. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

X. Postflight Procedures
A. After Landing, Parking and Securing (ASEL, AMEL)

Private Pilot Plan Of Action Template

Written on August 13, 2019 at 10:44 am, by hkraemer

I. Preflight Preparation
A. Pilot Qualifications
B. Airworthiness Requirements
C. Weather Information
D. Cross-Country Flight Planning
E. National Airspace System
F. Performance and Limitations
G. Operation of Systems
H. Human Factors

II. Preflight Procedures
A. Preflight Assessment
B. Flight Deck Management
C. Engine Starting
D. Taxiing
E. Before Takeoff Check

III. Airport and Seaplane Base Operations
A. Communications, Light Signals, and Runway Lighting Systems
B. Traffic Patterns

IV. Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds
A. Normal Takeoff and Climb
B. Normal Approach and Landing
C. Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb
D. Soft-Field Approach and Landing
E. Short-Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb
F. Short-Field Approach and Landing
G. Forward Slip to a Landing
H. Go-Around/Rejected Landing

V. Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers
A. Steep Turns
B. Ground Reference Maneuvers

VI. Navigation
A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
B. Navigation Systems and Radar Services
C. Diversion
D. Lost Procedures

VII. Slow Flight and Stalls
A. Maneuvering During Slow Flight
B. Power-Off Stalls
C. Power-On Stalls
D. Spin Awareness

VIII. Basic Instrument Maneuvers
A. Straight-and-Level Flight
B. Constant Airspeed Climbs
C. Constant Airspeed Descents
D. Turns to Headings
E. Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes
F. Radio Communications, Navigation Systems/Facilities, and Radar Services

IX. Emergency Operations
A. Emergency Descent
B. Emergency Approach and Landing
C. Systems and Equipment Malfunctions
D. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

X. Night Operations
A. Night Preparation

XI. Postflight Procedures
A. After Landing, Parking and Securing (ASEL, AMEL)

Kraemer Aviation / Flymall.org July 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter

Written on July 31, 2019 at 7:30 pm, by hkraemer

July is a busy month; Amelia disappeared, John met Paul, Neil walked on the moon, we loss Lee Iacocca, and more.

Click here to for our July 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter.

Harry & Pat hosted their annual July 4th 2019 celebration. A good time was had by all.

Click here for more pictures from the July 4th celebration.

We have a nice Grumman AA-5B for sale on the Flymall.  Click here for more details.

We also have a classic Jaguar for sale on the Flymall.  Click here for details.

History Trivia:  Amelia Earhart disappeared disappeared July 2, 1937.  The day John met Paul.  If you enjoy reading about dates in The Beatles history, visit our Events Calendar and select the “Beatles” category.  You can also search our Market Watch section of the Flymall for Beatles memorabilia, record sales, automobiles, and more.  Under “Make” search for key words like Beatles, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, etc. 

Achievements & Special Recognition:  New Private Pilot!  Harry did his first checkride as a DPE and the applicant passed.  See “CFI / DPE Notes” in this newsletter for a few pictures from that day.

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  The LearAvia Lear Fan 2100 was a turboprop business aircraft designed in the 1970s by Bill Lear (the father of the Lear Jet), with an unusual configuration. The Lear Fan never entered production.   Click here for more information.

On July 20 2019 we celebrated the 50th anniversary of Neil Armstrong landing on the moon.  Just 66 years from the Wright Brothers first flight. Imagine, only 66 years from Kitty Hawk to walking on the moon.

Have you ever thought what would happen if you lost your engine while flying?  No really, lost your engine.  It falls off of the airplane!!!  Click here for a story Harry found about just that.  So pay close attention to the propeller during your next preflight.

Car/Motorcycle Show News: Earlier this month we loss Lee Iacocca, the father of the Mustang.  A great man that did a lot for the automotive industry.

The Laytonsville Cruise In is ten years old this year.  To celebrate Harry has arranged sponsors for awards on the third Friday of each month through October 2019.  Its free to participate. Just show up and register your vehicle.  Pictured here is a sample of the awards that are given out.

Harry attended the District Harley Davidson bike show.  Harry had his 1912 AC Delivery trike at the show.

Here is the 1912 AC next to a 1916 Indian sidecar rig at the show.

Click here for more pictures from the show.  Visit our Events Calendar for information on local car shows and other events.  Our Day Tripper section is also full of fun places to visit.  Check it out!

Trying to get a vehicle ready for show season?  Or are you restoring a vehicle or motorcycle, check out the tech tip section of the Flymall.  You can also check out the Test Drive section of the Flymall for aircraft reviews, car & motorcycle reviews, and more.

Harry’s 1975 Lomax meets a 2018 Morgan three wheeler.

Click here for more pictures of the Morgan and Lomax get together.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  This month for our Barn Find we’re featuring a Jaguar that we have for sale.  Its actually a garage find.  A 1994 Jaguar XJS Convertible.  Click here for more details

CFI / DPE Notes:  Harry completed his first checkride as a DPE earlier this month.  Since then, he has completed numerous checkrides.  Here are a few pictures from his first checkride.

Before

The plane

He passed

Click here for Harry’s Practical Test page for more info on his checkrides.  Harry’s Practical Test page now has a calendar so applicants and instructors can check Harry’s availability.

Weather in the news:  The 4th of July 2019 had some interesting weather.  Everyone still had a great time at Pat & Harry’s annual July 4th cookout.

July rains bring floods.

Three Wheel Association (TWA):  Here is an interesting 3 wheeler for this month.  Very little facts online about this one.  Visit the Three Wheel Association page on the Flymall for more info on three wheelers.

Prototypes:  This month for our prototypes, the theme is “Take a second look”.

Here is an upside down truck that you can actually drive. 

Here is a sideways car

Animals in the headlines:  This month we have a dog that can play goalie.  Enjoy!

Your one stop shop for everything Wheels & Wings related: Sales, Appraisals, Insurance, Supplies, Tech Tips, Reviews, and more!!!

Sign up for this newsletter at Flymall.org

We close this newsletter with these words of wisdom:  Smile a lot.  It costs nothing and is beyond price.

Private Pilot Flight Profile

Written on July 28, 2019 at 6:40 pm, by hkraemer

Preflight Inspection
Cockpit Management
Engine Starting
Taxiing
Before Take-off Check
Normal takeoff and climb (cross wind takeoff if applicable)
Start off on cross country to the first 2 or 3 checkpoints – Pilotage/Dead Reckoning
Trigger Event – divert to an alternate I pick via pilotage/Dead Reckoning plus ATC

Normal approach & landing at alternate
Side slip for crosswind landing
Soft field takeoff & landing
Short field takeoff & landing
Forward slip to landing
Go around

Steep turns
Power off stall
Power on stall
Spin awareness
Ground Reference maneuvers

Instrument maneuvers, straight & level, constant airspeed climbs, constant airspeed descents, turns to headings
Magnetic compass turns
Unusual attitudes

Emergency descent
Emergency operations – systems & equipment failures
Lost procedures
Radio navigation return to home base (some hood work) – GPS & VOR
Emergency approach & landing
Post flight procedures

Hazardous Attitudes Text Version

Written on July 23, 2019 at 2:29 pm, by hkraemer

Anti-authority: “Don’t tell me.” This attitude is found in people who do not like anyone telling them what to do. In a sense, they are saying, “No one can tell me what to do.” They may be resentful of having someone tell them what to do or may regard rules, regulations, and procedures as silly or unnecessary. However, it is always your prerogative to question authority if you feel it is in error.  Antidote – Follow the rules. They are usually right.

Impulsivity: “Do it quickly.” This is the attitude of people who frequently feel the need to do something, anything, immediately. They do not stop to think about what they are about to do, they do not select the best alternative, and they do the first thing that comes to mind.  Antidote – Not so fast. Think first.

Invulnerability: “It won’t happen to me.” Many people falsely believe that accidents happen to others, but never to them. They know accidents can happen, and they know that anyone can be affected. However, they never really feel or believe that they will be personally involved. Pilots who think
this way are more likely to take chances and increase risk.  Antidote – It could happen to me.

Macho: “I can do it.” Pilots who are always trying to prove that they are better than anyone else think, “I can do it—I’ll show them.” Pilots with this type of attitude will try to prove themselves by taking risks in order to impress others. While this pattern is thought to be a male characteristic, women are equally susceptible. Antidote – Taking chances is foolish.

Resignation: “What’s the use?” Pilots who think, “What’s the use?” do not see themselves as being able to make a great deal of difference in what happens to them. When things go well, the pilot is apt to think that it is good luck. When things go badly, the pilot may feel that someone is out to get them or attribute it to bad luck. The pilot will leave the action to others, for
better or worse. Sometimes, such pilots will even go along with unreasonable requests just to be a “nice guy.”  Antidote – I’m not helpless. I can make a difference.

Hazardous Attitudes

Written on July 23, 2019 at 2:17 pm, by hkraemer

Today in Aviation History
September 18, 1947: Army air activities transferred to new Department of the Air Force