Archive for July, 2019

Kraemer Aviation / Flymall.org July 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter

Wednesday, July 31st, 2019

July is a busy month; Amelia disappeared, John met Paul, Neil walked on the moon, we loss Lee Iacocca, and more.

Click here to for our July 2019 Wheels & Wings Newsletter.

Harry & Pat hosted their annual July 4th 2019 celebration. A good time was had by all.

Click here for more pictures from the July 4th celebration.

We have a nice Grumman AA-5B for sale on the Flymall.  Click here for more details.

We also have a classic Jaguar for sale on the Flymall.  Click here for details.

History Trivia:  Amelia Earhart disappeared disappeared July 2, 1937.  The day John met Paul.  If you enjoy reading about dates in The Beatles history, visit our Events Calendar and select the “Beatles” category.  You can also search our Market Watch section of the Flymall for Beatles memorabilia, record sales, automobiles, and more.  Under “Make” search for key words like Beatles, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, etc. 

Achievements & Special Recognition:  New Private Pilot!  Harry did his first checkride as a DPE and the applicant passed.  See “CFI / DPE Notes” in this newsletter for a few pictures from that day.

Aviation/Aviators in the news:  The LearAvia Lear Fan 2100 was a turboprop business aircraft designed in the 1970s by Bill Lear (the father of the Lear Jet), with an unusual configuration. The Lear Fan never entered production.   Click here for more information.

On July 20 2019 we celebrated the 50th anniversary of Neil Armstrong landing on the moon.  Just 66 years from the Wright Brothers first flight. Imagine, only 66 years from Kitty Hawk to walking on the moon.

Have you ever thought what would happen if you lost your engine while flying?  No really, lost your engine.  It falls off of the airplane!!!  Click here for a story Harry found about just that.  So pay close attention to the propeller during your next preflight.

Car/Motorcycle Show News: Earlier this month we loss Lee Iacocca, the father of the Mustang.  A great man that did a lot for the automotive industry.

The Laytonsville Cruise In is ten years old this year.  To celebrate Harry has arranged sponsors for awards on the third Friday of each month through October 2019.  Its free to participate. Just show up and register your vehicle.  Pictured here is a sample of the awards that are given out.

Harry attended the District Harley Davidson bike show.  Harry had his 1912 AC Delivery trike at the show.

Here is the 1912 AC next to a 1916 Indian sidecar rig at the show.

Click here for more pictures from the show.  Visit our Events Calendar for information on local car shows and other events.  Our Day Tripper section is also full of fun places to visit.  Check it out!

Trying to get a vehicle ready for show season?  Or are you restoring a vehicle or motorcycle, check out the tech tip section of the Flymall.  You can also check out the Test Drive section of the Flymall for aircraft reviews, car & motorcycle reviews, and more.

Harry’s 1975 Lomax meets a 2018 Morgan three wheeler.

Click here for more pictures of the Morgan and Lomax get together.

Barn Finds/Hangar Finds:  This month for our Barn Find we’re featuring a Jaguar that we have for sale.  Its actually a garage find.  A 1994 Jaguar XJS Convertible.  Click here for more details

CFI / DPE Notes:  Harry completed his first checkride as a DPE earlier this month.  Since then, he has completed numerous checkrides.  Here are a few pictures from his first checkride.

Before

The plane

He passed

Click here for Harry’s Practical Test page for more info on his checkrides.  Harry’s Practical Test page now has a calendar so applicants and instructors can check Harry’s availability.

Weather in the news:  The 4th of July 2019 had some interesting weather.  Everyone still had a great time at Pat & Harry’s annual July 4th cookout.

July rains bring floods.

Three Wheel Association (TWA):  Here is an interesting 3 wheeler for this month.  Very little facts online about this one.  Visit the Three Wheel Association page on the Flymall for more info on three wheelers.

Prototypes:  This month for our prototypes, the theme is “Take a second look”.

Here is an upside down truck that you can actually drive. 

Here is a sideways car

Animals in the headlines:  This month we have a dog that can play goalie.  Enjoy!

Your one stop shop for everything Wheels & Wings related: Sales, Appraisals, Insurance, Supplies, Tech Tips, Reviews, and more!!!

Sign up for this newsletter at Flymall.org

We close this newsletter with these words of wisdom:  Smile a lot.  It costs nothing and is beyond price.

Private Pilot Flight Profile

Sunday, July 28th, 2019

Preflight Inspection
Cockpit Management
Engine Starting
Taxiing
Before Take-off Check
Normal takeoff and climb (cross wind takeoff if applicable)
Start off on cross country to the first 2 or 3 checkpoints – Pilotage/Dead Reckoning
Trigger Event – divert to an alternate I pick via pilotage/Dead Reckoning plus ATC

Normal approach & landing at alternate
Side slip for crosswind landing
Soft field takeoff & landing
Short field takeoff & landing
Forward slip to landing
Go around

Steep turns

Slow Flight
Power off stall
Power on stall
Spin awareness
Ground Reference maneuvers

Instrument maneuvers, straight & level, constant airspeed climbs, constant airspeed descents, turns to headings
Magnetic compass turns
Unusual attitudes

Emergency descent
Emergency operations – systems & equipment failures
Lost procedures
Radio navigation return to home base (some hood work) – GPS & VOR
Emergency approach & landing
Post flight procedures

Hazardous Attitudes Text Version

Tuesday, July 23rd, 2019

Anti-authority: “Don’t tell me.” This attitude is found in people who do not like anyone telling them what to do. In a sense, they are saying, “No one can tell me what to do.” They may be resentful of having someone tell them what to do or may regard rules, regulations, and procedures as silly or unnecessary. However, it is always your prerogative to question authority if you feel it is in error.  Antidote – Follow the rules. They are usually right.

Impulsivity: “Do it quickly.” This is the attitude of people who frequently feel the need to do something, anything, immediately. They do not stop to think about what they are about to do, they do not select the best alternative, and they do the first thing that comes to mind.  Antidote – Not so fast. Think first.

Invulnerability: “It won’t happen to me.” Many people falsely believe that accidents happen to others, but never to them. They know accidents can happen, and they know that anyone can be affected. However, they never really feel or believe that they will be personally involved. Pilots who think
this way are more likely to take chances and increase risk.  Antidote – It could happen to me.

Macho: “I can do it.” Pilots who are always trying to prove that they are better than anyone else think, “I can do it—I’ll show them.” Pilots with this type of attitude will try to prove themselves by taking risks in order to impress others. While this pattern is thought to be a male characteristic, women are equally susceptible. Antidote – Taking chances is foolish.

Resignation: “What’s the use?” Pilots who think, “What’s the use?” do not see themselves as being able to make a great deal of difference in what happens to them. When things go well, the pilot is apt to think that it is good luck. When things go badly, the pilot may feel that someone is out to get them or attribute it to bad luck. The pilot will leave the action to others, for
better or worse. Sometimes, such pilots will even go along with unreasonable requests just to be a “nice guy.”  Antidote – I’m not helpless. I can make a difference.

Hazardous Attitudes

Tuesday, July 23rd, 2019

100 Hour Inspection Legal Interpretation

Saturday, July 20th, 2019

Office of the Chief Counsel

800 Independence Ave., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20591

Re: Request for Legal Interpretation of 14 CFR § 91.409(b)

Dear Mr. Greenwood:

On October 1, 2014, my office responded to your March 22 request for a legal interpretation of 14 C.F .R. § 91.409(b ), the FAA’s regulation requiring annual or 1 00-hour inspections for aircraft operated for hire, including flight instruction. Your questions concerned operations by Fly By
Knight, Inc. (Fly By Knight), a flight school certificated under 14 C.F.R. parts 61 and 141, that offers both flight instruction and aircraft rental to its customers. We have re-evaluated our response to your final question, which was an expansion of your Scenario 6. Please note that
our responses to Scenarios 1 through 5 remain unchanged. This letter corrects the letter of interpretation dated October 1, 2014, and strikes that letter from the Federal Aviation Administration database.

Section 91.409(b) of subpart E, part 91, states that “no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no person may give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection.” For purposes of§ 91.409(b), aircraft used for flight training under part 141 are not treated any differently than aircraft used for flight instruction under part 61. In fact,§ 141.39(a)(3) provides that each aircraft used by a part 141 flight school for flight training and solo flights “must be maintained and inspected in
accordance with the requirements for aircraft operated for hire under part 91, subpart E.”

The 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement of§ 91.409(b) depends on how the aircraft is operated. See Legal Interpretation, Letter to Craig Brown from Donald Byrne, Assistant Chief Counsel for Regulations (February 24, 2000). Therefore, when Fly By Knight uses an aircraft
for both flight instruction and rental, the 1 00-hour maintenance inspection requirement depends on how the aircraft is operated during the flight in question. For instance, if Fly By Knight is going to operate the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire, then the aircraft must have had
an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours oftime in service. If Fly By Knight is going to rent the aircraft to a customer, however, and does not provide the pilot, that aircraft need not have an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection within the
preceding 1 00 hours of time in service. See Legal Interpretation, Letter to Berry Rackers from Joseph Brennan, Associate Regional Counsel (May 3, 1984).

You listed six scenarios that could occur during your operations, and you requested counsel’s opinion as to whether these scenarios represent a violation of§ 91.409(b ).

Scenario 1: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 95 hours of time in service since the last annual inspection. A rental customer reserves the aircraft for a weekend trip and anticipates flying an additional 10 hours. We assume
Fly By Knight does not provide a pilot. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 1 does not violate § 91.409(b ). As explained above, the 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement depends on how the aircraft is operated. If the rental customer rents the aircraft and Fly By Knight does not provide the pilot, then the aircraft is not being operated to carry a person (other than a crewmember) for hire, or to provide flight
instruction for hire. Thus, the 1 00-hour maintenance inspection requirement does not apply, and the rental customer may pilot the aircraft the additional 10 hours. Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection, however, prior to operating the aircraft to provide
flight instruction for hire.

Scenario 2: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a local training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot, and the flight lasts 1.5 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 100-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 2 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 100-hour limitation during a local training flight. The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. As a result, the aircraft must have
received an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. The next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the local training flight is expected to take 1.5 hours. Section 91.409(b) states that “the 100-hour
limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.” This 10-hour grace period applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be performed. In this scenario,
the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 100-hour limitation during a local training flight. The 1 0-hour grace period does not apply to local training flights. As a result, the operator violates § 91.409(b) when the 0.2 hours expire.

Scenario 3: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a solo cross country training flight with a student pilot. The flight takes 2.5 hours and includes a
full stop landing at the destination airpoti. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 3 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight student intends to overfly the 100-hour limitation during his solo cross country flight, and he is not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. Section 91.409(b) applies
to aircraft operated to provide flight instruction for hire. Thus, § 91.409(b) applies to aircraft used for flight instruction under part 61, which includes solo training flights. Furthermore, § 141.39 states that each aircraft used by a part 141 flight school for flight training and solo flights “must be maintained and inspected in accordance with the requirements for aircraft
operated for hire under part 91, subpart E.” Therefore, if a flight student conducts a solo cross country training flight, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service.

In this scenario, the next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the solo cross country training flight is expected to take 2.5 hours. The 10-hour grace period in § 91.409(b) applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be performed. The student pilot intends to overfly the 100-hour limitation during his solo cross country flight, and he is not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. As a result, the operator violates § 91.409(b ).

Scenario 4: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 99.8 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a cross country training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot. The 1st leg to
the destination airpmi takes 1.5 hours. The return flight also takes 1.5 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 100-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 4 represents a violation of§ 91.409(b) because the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 1 00-hour limitation during their cross country flight, and they are not flying the aircraft en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.
The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. Therefore, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of
time in service. The next annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection is due in 0.2 hours, and the dual cross country flight is expected to take 3 hours. As stated above, the 10-hour grace period in § 91.409(b) applies only to situations where the aircraft must be flown en route to reach a
place where the inspection can be performed. In this scenario, the flight instructor and the student pilot intend to overfly the 1 00-hour limitation during their cross country training flight, and the aircraft is not being flown en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. As
in the previous scenario, the operator violates§ 91.409(b).

Scenario 5: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 97 hours of time in service since the last inspection. The aircraft is dispatched on a cross country training flight with a Fly By Knight instructor and a student pilot. The 1st leg to
the destination airport is expected to take 1.5 hours. The return flight is also expected to take 1.5 hours. Due to ATC vectoring/unexpected winds, the flight instead takes 3.1 hours. Fly By Knight performs a 1 00-hr/annual inspection upon the aircraft’s return.

The fact pattern in scenario 5 does not violate§ 91.409(b). The aircraft is being operated to provide flight instruction for hire. As a result, the aircraft must have received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. The aircraft had its last inspection within the preceding 97 hours of time in service and the planned flight is expected to take 3 hours. The aircraft remains in compliance with § 91.409(b) even though the flight takes 3.1 hours due to unexpected circumstances. The flight instructor and the student pilot did not intentionally overfly the 1 00-hour limitation, and § 91.409(b) provides that the 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.

Scenario 6: Fly By Knight uses an aircraft for both flight instruction and rental. The aircraft has accumulated 100 hours of time in service since the last inspection. Fly By Knight cannot perform an inspection within the next 3 days. The aircraft is marked for rental use only; no flight instruction is performed. Rental customers accumulate 12 hours of flight time over the 3 day period. After this, the aircraft receives an annual inspection.

The fact pattern in scenario 6 does not violate§ 91.409(b). Fly By Knight cannot operate the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire because the aircraft has not received an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service. Fly By Knight may rent the aircraft to customers, however, as long as Fly By Knight is not providing the pilot and as long as the rental customer is not operating the aircraft for hire. Rental customers may continue to accumulate flight time in this scenario because the 1OO-hour  maintenanceinspection requirement does not apply to aircraft being operated for rental purposes. However,
Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection on the aircraft prior to operating it to provide flight instruction for hire.

You also asked if an annual inspection “reset the clock” for a 100-hour inspection. You provided the following example:  An aircraft received an annual inspection and then flew 105 hours, if a 100-hr inspection was performed then the next inspection due would be in a further 95
hours however, if instead an annual inspection was performed, then the next required inspection would be in a further 100 hours, i.e., gaining 5 hours over performing a 100-hr inspection.” Your scenario is only partially correct.

Section 91.409(b) states that “the 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.” However, “the excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the
next 100 hours of time in service.”

You may perform an annual inspection rather than a 100-hour maintenance inspection when the aircraft reaches the 100-hour limitation under § 91.409(b ). However, if you perform an annual inspection on an aircraft that has exceeded the 100-hour limitation, you are still required to subtract the excess time from the next 100 hours of time in service. In your example, the aircraft received an annual inspection and then flew 105 hours. This aircraft would be overdue for an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection, assuming it is being operated for hire or operated to
provide flight instruction for hire. For purposes of this hypothetical, we will assume you exceeded the 1 00-hour limitation by 5 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection could be done. You must subtract the 5 excess hours from the next 100 hours of time in service. Therefore, the next annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection would be due in 95 hours,
regardless of whether an annual or 100-hour maintenance inspection was last performed-the fact that you deemed the inspection in the second part of your hypothetical an annual rather than a 100-hour inspection makes no difference.

Finally, you asked how to bring the aircraft described in scenario 6 back into compliance when considering the 10-hour limitation detailed in§ 91.409(b). As explained above, the fact pattern described in scenario 6 does not violate § 91.409(b). The rental customer may overfly the 100-
hour limitation because the 100-hour maintenance inspection requirement does not apply to rental aircraft, provided that Fly By Knight does not provide the pilot to the rental customer and provided that the rental customer does not operate the aircraft for hire. Furthermore, the rental
customer may accumulate flight time in excess of 110 hours because the 1 0-hour grace period applies only when the aircraft is being operated for hire or operated to provide flight instruction for hire, and only when it is being operated en route to reach a place where the inspection can be
done. If the aircraft accumulates more than 110 hours of time in service while operating for hire or for flight instruction (only 10 of which are permissible to reach the place of inspection) the operator would be in violation of § 91.409(b ). The only way to bring the aircraft in your
scenario 6 back into compliance for purposes of providing flight instruction is to perform the 1 00-hour or annual inspection before operating it for those purposes. Therefore, the operation in scenario 6 does not violate § 91.409(b) when a rental customer accumulates flight time in excess
of 110 hours. However, Fly By Knight must perform an annual or 1 00-hour maintenance inspection prior to using the aircraft to provide flight instruction for hire.

We appreciate your patience and trust that the above responds to your concerns. If you need further assistance, please contact my staff at (202) 267-3073. This response was prepared by Katie Patrick and Edmund Averman, Attorneys in the Regulations Division of the Office of
the Chief Counsel, and coordinated with the Aircraft Maintenance Division of the Flight Standards Service.

Sincerely,
Lorelei Peter
Acting Assistant Chief Counsel for Regulations, AGC-200

The 5K Orchard Run

Tuesday, July 16th, 2019

The 8th annual 5k trail race/walk will be held at

Butler’s Orchard

(22222 Davis Mill Road, Germantown, MD 20876) on

Saturday, November 23 at 10:30am

(followed by a FREE family fun run).

The 5k Orchard Run supports passionate dreamers from the UpCounty area who imagine the world to be a place of love, justice, compassion, and provision.

This year, we have chosen four local groups to make their corner of the world, locally or globally, as it should be:

Jobs Partnership – Teaching inmates at the Montgomery County Correctional Facility resume, interview, and jobs skills.

Little Free Pantry – An anonymous 24/7 emergency food pantry with locations in Damascus and Clarksburg.

PURE Youth – A local chapter of middle school students raising money to support the education of peers in India.

Campus Life – A middle and high school club dedicated to helping young people build positive relationships.

Get Involved!

Become A Sponsor

Is your business interested in becoming a sponsor? Your monetary donations, gifts in kind, or presence at the race can make this the best race yet. Contact Nicole Bungato at 301-787-6320 / nicolebungato@gmail.com for more information.

Register to Race

Go to 5korchardrun.com to register to race. Select which group you would like to race for and all profits from your registration fee will go towards their group.

METAR Report Decoded

Wednesday, July 10th, 2019

METAR – The type of report, METAR or SPECI precedes the body of all reports. 

KOKC – Station Identifier

011955Z – The date and time is coded in all reports as follows: the day of the month is the first two digits (01) followed by the hour (19), and the minutes (55). The coded time of observations is the actual time of the report or when the criteria for a SPECI is met or noted. If the report is a correction to a previously disseminated report, the time of the corrected report is the same time used in the report being corrected. The date and time group always ends with a Z indicating Zulu time (or UTC). For example, METAR KOKC 011955Z would be disseminated as the 2000 hour scheduled report for station KOKC taken on the 1st of the month at 1955 UTC. 

AUTO – The report modifier, AUTO, identifies the METAR/SPECI as a fully automated report with no human intervention or oversight. In the event of a corrected METAR or SPECI, the report modifier, COR, is substituted for AUTO. 

22015G25KT – Wind is the horizontal motion of air past a given point. It is measured in terms of velocity, which is a vector that includes direction and speed. It indicates the direction the wind is coming FROM.

In the wind group, the wind direction is coded as the first three digits (220) and is determined by averaging the recorded wind direction over a 2-minute period. It is coded in tens of degrees relative to true north using three figures. Directions less than 100 degrees are preceded with a
0. For example, a wind direction of 900 is coded as 090.


Immediately following the wind direction is the wind speed coded in two or three digits (15). Wind speed is determined by averaging the speed over a 2-minute period and is coded in whole knots using the units, tens digits and, when required, the hundreds digit. When wind speeds are less than 10 knots, a leading zero is used to maintain at least a two digit wind code. For
example, a wind speed of 8 knots will be coded 08KT. The wind group is always coded with a KT to indicate wind speeds are reported in knots. Other countries may use kilometers per hour (KPH) or meters per second (MPS) instead of knots.

Examples:
05008KT Wind 50 degrees at 8 knots
15014KT Wind 150 degrees at 14 knots
340112KT Wind 340 degrees at 112 knots 

Wind Gust. Wind speed data for the most recent 10 minutes is examined to evaluate the occurrence of gusts. Gusts are defined as rapid fluctuations in wind speed with a variation of 10 knots or more between peaks and lulls. The coded speed of the gust is the maximum instantaneous wind
speed. Wind gusts are coded in two or three digits immediately following the wind speed. Wind gusts are coded in whole knots using the units, tens, and, if required, the hundreds digit. For example, a wind out of the west at 20 knots with gusts to 35 knots would be coded 27020G35KT.

Variable Wind Direction (speed 6 knots or less). Wind direction may be considered variable when, during the previous 2-minute evaluation
period, the wind speed was 6 knots or less. In this case, the wind may be coded as VRB in place of the 3-digit wind direction. For example, if the wind speed was recorded as 3 knots, it would be coded VRB03KT.

180V250 – Variable Wind Direction (speed greater than 6 knots).  Wind direction may also be considered variable when, during the 2-minute evaluation period, it
varies by 60 degrees or more and the speed is greater than 6 knots. In this case a variable wind direction group immediately follows the wind group. The directional variability is coded in a clockwise direction and consists of the extremes of the wind directions separated by a V. For example, if the wind is variable from 180º to 240º at 10 knots, it would be coded 21010KT
180V240. 

Calm Wind. When no motion of air is detected, the wind is reported as calm. A calm wind is coded as 00000KT.

 

 3/4SM – Visibility is a measure of the opacity of the atmosphere.


Prevailing visibility is the reported visibility considered representative of recorded visibility conditions at the station during the time of observation. It is the greatest distance that can be seen throughout at least half of the horizon circle, not necessarily continuous.


Surface visibility is the prevailing visibility from the surface at manual stations or the visibility derived from sensors at automated stations.


The visibility group is coded as the surface visibility in statute miles. A space is coded between whole numbers and fractions of reportable visibility values. The visibility group ends with SM to indicate that the visibility is in statute miles. For example, a visibility of one and a half statute miles is coded 1 1/2SM. Other countries may use meters (no code).


Automated stations use an M to indicate “less than.” For example, M1/4SM means a visibility of less than one-quarter statute mile.

R17L/2600FT – Runway Visual Range (RVR) Group.

The runway visual range (RVR) is an instrument-derived value representing the horizontal distance a pilot may see down the runway.

RVR is reported whenever the station has RVR equipment and prevailing visibility is 1 statute mile or less and/or the RVR for the designated instrument runway is 6,000 feet or less. Otherwise the RVR group is omitted.

Runway visual range is coded in the following format: the initial R is code for runway and is followed by the runway number. When more than one runway is defined with the same runway number a directional letter is coded on the end of the runway number. Next is a solidus /;
followed by the visual range in feet and then FT completes the RVR report. For example, an RVR value for Runway 01L of 800 feet would be coded R01L/0800FT. Other countries may use meters.

RVR values are coded in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet. Manual RVR is not reported below 600 feet. At automated stations, RVR may be reported for up to four designated runways. 

When the RVR varies by more than one reportable value, the lowest and highest values will be shown with V between them indicating variable conditions. For example, the 10-minute RVR for runway 01L varying between 600 and 1,000 feet would be coded R01L/0600V1000FT.

If RVR is less than its lowest reportable value, the visual range group is preceded by M. For example, an RVR for runway 01L of less than 600 feet is coded R01L/M0600FT.

If RVR is greater than its highest reportable value, the visual range group is preceded by a P. For example, an RVR for runway 27 of greater than 6,000 feet will be coded R27/P6000FT.

+TSRA BR – Present Weather Group.  Heavy. TS = Thunderstorms.  RA = Rain. BR = MIST.


OVC010CB – Sky Condition Group.  Overcast at 1,000 feet with cumulonimbus. 

18/16 – Temperature/Dew Point Group

A2992 –  Altimeter

RMK AO2 TSB25 TS OHD MOV E SLP132 – Remarks (RMK). 

A02 – Type of Automated Station AO1 or AO2 are coded in all METAR/SPECI from automated stations. Automated stations without a precipitation discriminator are identified as AO1; automated stations with a
precipitation discriminator are identified as AO2. 

SLP132 – Sea-Level Pressure. At designated stations, the sea-level pressure is coded in the following format: the identifier SLP immediately followed by the sea level pressure in hectopascals. The hundreds and thousands units are not coded and must be inferred. For example, a sea-level pressure of
998.2 hectopascals is coded as SLP982. A sea-level pressure of 1013.2 hectopascals would be coded as SLP132. For a METAR, if sea-level pressure is not available, it is coded as SLPNO. 

METAR Report

Wednesday, July 10th, 2019

METAR KOKC 011955Z AUTO 22015G25KT 180V250 3/4SM R17L/2600FT +TSRA BR
OVC010CB 18/16 A2992 RMK AO2 TSB25 TS OHD MOV E SLP132

Instrument Rating Endorsements

Sunday, July 7th, 2019

Prerequisites for practical test: Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part 61, § 61.39(a)(6)(i) and (ii).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged training time within 2 calendar-months preceding the month of application in preparation for the practical test and [he or she] is prepared for the required practical test for the issuance of [applicable] certificate.

Review of deficiencies identified on airman knowledge test: § 61.39(a)(6)(iii), as required.
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was deficient on the [applicable] airman knowledge test.

Aeronautical knowledge test: §§ 61.35(a)(1) and 61.65(a) and (b).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.65(b). I have determined that [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift] knowledge test.

Flight proficiency/practical test: § 61.65(a)(6).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received the required training of § 61.65(c) and (d). I have determined [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift] practical test.

Prerequisites for instrument practical tests: § 61.39(a).
I certify that [First name, MI, Last name] has received and logged the required flight time/training of § 61.39(a) in preparation for the practical test within 2 calendar-months preceding the date of the test and has satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which [he or she] was shown to be deficient by the FAA Airman Knowledge Test Report. I have
determined [he or she] is prepared for the Instrument–[airplane, helicopter, or powered lift] practical test.

Today in Aviation History
December 6, 1949: $50 million USAF funds to be diverted to build U.S.-Alaska radar defenses.