Objective: The objective of this maneuver is to develop the pilot’s coordination, orientation, planning, and accuracy of control during maximum performance flight.




Instructors Actions:

Students Actions:

Completion Standards:

From Instructor PTS (current as of Jan 2012):
Objective. To determine that the applicant:
1. Exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of chandelles by describing—
a. the purpose of chandelles and their relationship to basic/advanced airmanship skills.
b. selection of entry altitude.
c. entry airspeed and power setting.
d. division of attention and planning.
e. coordination of flight controls.
f. pitch and bank attitudes at various points during the maneuver.
g. proper correction for torque effect in right and left turns.
h. achievement of maximum performance.
i. completion procedure.
2. Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to chandelles by describing—
a. improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry or completion.
b. uncoordinated use of flight controls.
c. improper planning and timing of pitch and bank attitude changes.
d. factors related to failure in achieving maximum performance.
e. a stall during the maneuver.
3. Demonstrates and simultaneously explains chandelles from an instructional standpoint.
4. Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to chandelles.

From Commercial Pilot PTS (current as of Jan 2012)
Objective. To determine that the applicant:
1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to chandelles.
2. Selects an altitude that will allow the maneuver to be performed
no lower than 1,500 feet AGL (460 meters).
3. Establishes the recommended entry configuration, power, and
4. Establishes the angle of bank at approximately 30°.
5. Simultaneously applies power and pitch to maintain a smooth,
coordinated climbing turn to the 90° point, with a constant bank.
6. Begins a coordinated constant rate rollout from the 90° point to
the 180° point maintaining power and a constant pitch attitude.
7. Completes rollout at the 180° point, ±10° just above a stall
airspeed, and maintaining that airspeed momentarily avoiding a
8. Resumes straight and level flight with minimum loss of altitude.

Detailed Information
Detailed Description
A chandelle is a maximum performance climbing turn beginning from approximately straight-and-level flight, and ending at the completion of a precise 180° of turn in a wings-level, nose-high attitude at the minimum controllable airspeed. The maneuver demands that the maximum flight performance of the airplane be obtained; the airplane should gain the most altitude possible for a given degree of bank and power setting without stalling. Since numerous atmospheric variables beyond control of the pilot will affect the specific amount of altitude gained, the quality of the performance of the maneuver is not judged solely on the altitude gain, but by the pilot’s overall proficiency as it pertains to climb performance for the power/bank combination used, and to the elements of piloting skill demonstrated. Prior to starting a chandelle, the flaps and gear (if retractable) should be in the UP position, power set to cruise condition, and the airspace behind and above clear of other air traffic. The maneuver should be entered from straight-and-level flight (or a shallow dive) and at a speed no greater than the maximum entry speed recommended by the manufacturer—in most cases not above the airplane’s design maneuvering speed (VA). After the appropriate airspeed and power setting have been established, the chandelle is started by smoothly entering a coordinated turn with an angle of bank appropriate for the airplane being flown. Normally, this angle of bank should not exceed approximately 30°. After the appropriate bank is established, a climbing turn should be started by smoothly applying back-elevator pressure to increase the pitch attitude at a constant rate and to attain the highest pitch attitude as 90° of turn is completed. As the climb is initiated in airplanes with fixed-pitch propellers, full throttle may be applied, but is applied gradually so that the maximum allowable r.p.m. is not exceeded. In airplanes with constant-speed propellers, power may be left at the normal cruise setting.
Today in Aviation History
December 1, 1949: Cal Tech dedicates a hypersonic wind tunnel which can continually generate airflow speeds greater than 10 time that of sound at sea level. Allen E. Puckett of Ca Tech under contract to the Army Ordnance Department, designed it to accelerate rocket and guided missile research. The previous highest speed tunnel could maintain Mach 7 for only a few seconds. Costs: $2,600,000.